• Hidden Underemployment Among Irish Farm Holders 1996-2011

      Loughrey, Jason; Hennessy, Thia (Agricultural Economics Society Annual Conference, 2013)
      This paper examines the factors driving hidden underemployment on Irish farms during the course of the economic boom in Ireland and the subsequent economic decline post 2008. This measure of hidden underemployment is due to differences between the farmer‟s reported amount of labour and the standard labour requirement estimated in the Teagasc National Farm Survey. Hidden underemployment can be attributed to a number of factors relating to inadequate employment situations as described at the 16th International Conference of Labour Statisticians (16th ICLS) such as low productivity, casual work practices and the poor utilisation of skills and other factors specific to agriculture and/or self employment. We place particular attention upon the potential role of off-farm labour supply in solving the underemployment problem. We use a two-stage residual inclusion model and a random effects probit model to examine the forces behind farm underemployment. This paper provides an interesting set of results given that the end of the economic boom phase co-incided closely but not precisely with the decoupling of farm-level subsidies in 2006.
    • Land Market Review and Outlook 2017

      Myler, Áine; McAuley, Edward; Donnellan, Trevor; Hanrahan, Kevin; Loughrey, Jason (Society of Chartered Surveyors Ireland / Teagasc, 2017)
      This report brings together the respective expertise of both organisations (Teagasc and SCSI) to increase the range and quality of the data that is available on the agricultural land market in Ireland.
    • Using the EU-SILC to model the impact of the economic crisis on inequality

      O'Donoghue, Cathal; Loughrey, Jason; Morrissey, Karyn (Springer Open, 23/12/2013)
      In this paper we attempted to chart the impact of the early part of Ireland’s economic crisis from 2008–2009 on the distribution of income. In order to decompose the impact of changes in different income components, we utilised a microsimulation methodology and the EU-SILC User Database. This simulation based methodology involved the disaggregation of the 6 main benefit variables in the EU-SILC into 17 variables for our tax-benefit model. Validating, our results were positive, giving us confidence in our methodology. We utilised the framework to model changes in the level of income inequality from the period just before the crisis in 2004 to the depth of the worst year of the crisis in 2009. In terms of the impact of the economic crisis, we found that income inequality fell in the early part of the crisis modelled in this paper. Much of this change was due to rising inequality of market incomes, (even when discounting unemployment). This was due to the differential effect of the downturn on different sectors where some sectors such as the construction and public sectors were significantly hit, while the international traded sectors have been relatively immune from the downturn and have seen continued growth. The impact of the tax-benefit system has been to mitigate this upward pressure, with a gradual rise in the redistributive effect of the tax-benefit system driven by an increase in demand on the benefits side and increased progressivity on the tax side. Jel codes H22, H55, C15
    • The Welfare Impact of Price Changes on Household Welfare and Inequality 1999-2011

      Loughrey, Jason; O’Donoghue, Cathal (Economic and Social Studies, 2012)
      This paper attempts to use applied micro-economic research to understand the impact of price changes over the period 1999-2011 in Ireland. This measure combines an efficiency component using a Linear Expenditure System (LES) and an equity component using the Atkinson Index of Inequality. The efficiency component includes the behavioural response to price changes for non-subsistence expenditures thereby producing a Cost of Living Index. The Atkinson Index of Inequality produces an inequality measure and this is combined with the Cost of Living Index to produce an overall welfare measure. This extends upon the existing Irish literature on this issue by accounting for this broader set of components. The results show that changes in the cost of living have differed substantially between households both in terms of demographics and the position of the household in the income distribution and that behavioural response can potentially improve the welfare position of households in response to price changes in most years.