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dc.contributor.authorKhan, Majid Ali
dc.contributor.authorCosta, Fabiola Barros
dc.contributor.authorFenton, Owen
dc.contributor.authorJordan, Phil
dc.contributor.authorFennell, Chris
dc.contributor.authorMellander, Per-Erik
dc.date.accessioned2021-08-04T13:58:31Z
dc.date.available2021-08-04T13:58:31Z
dc.date.issued2020-12
dc.identifier.citationM. Ali Khan, F. Barros Costa, O. Fenton, P. Jordan, C. Fennell, P. Mellander, Using a multi-dimensional approach for catchment scale herbicide pollution assessments, Science of The Total Environment. 2020, 747, 141232. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141232en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11019/2541
dc.descriptionpeer-revieweden_US
dc.description.abstractWorldwide herbicide use in agriculture, whilst safeguarding yields also presents water quality issues. Controlling factors in agricultural catchments include both static and dynamic parameters. The present study investigated the occurrence of herbicides in streams and groundwater in two meso-scale catchments with contrasting flow controls and agricultural landuse (grassland and arable land). Using a multi-dimensional approach, streams were monitored from November 2018 to November 2019 using Chemcatcher® passive sampling devices and groundwater was sampled in 95 private drinking water wells. The concentrations of herbicides were larger in the stream of the Grassland catchment (8.9–472.6 ng L−1) dominated by poorly drained soils than in the Arable catchment (0.9–169.1 ng L−1) dominated by well-drained soils. Incidental losses of herbicides during time of application and low flows in summer caused concentrations of MCPA, Fluroxypyr, Trichlorpyr, Clopyralid and Mecoprop to exceeded the European Union (EU) drinking water standard due to a lack of dilution. Herbicides were present in the stream throughout the year and the total mass load was higher in winter flows, suggesting a persistence of primary chemical residues in soil and sub-surface environments and restricted degradation. Losses of herbicides to the streams were source limited and influenced by hydrological conditions. Herbicides were detected in 38% of surveyed drinking water wells. While most areas had concentrations below the EU drinking water standard some areas with well-drained soils in the Grassland catchment, had concentrations exceeding recommendations. Individual wells had concentrations of Clopyralid (619 ng L−1) and Trichlorpyr (650 ng L−1). Despite the study areas not usually associated with herbicide pollution, and annual mass loads being comparatively low, many herbicides were present in both surface and groundwater, sometimes above the recommendations for drinking water. This whole catchment assessment provides a basis to develop collaborative measures to mitigate pollution of water by herbicides.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHorizon 2020 Framework Programme
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevier BVen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesScience of The Total Environment;747
dc.rights© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttps://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/*
dc.subjectPesticidesen_US
dc.subjectPassive samplingen_US
dc.subjectAgricultureen_US
dc.subjectSurface wateren_US
dc.subjectGroundwateren_US
dc.subjectDrinking wateren_US
dc.titleUsing a multi-dimensional approach for catchment scale herbicide pollution assessmentsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141232
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Unionen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorGrantNumber727450en_US
dc.source.volume747
dc.source.beginpage141232
refterms.dateFOA2021-08-04T13:58:31Z
dc.source.journaltitleScience of The Total Environment


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