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dc.contributor.authorRose Vineer, Hannah
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, Eric R.
dc.contributor.authorHertzberg, Hubertus
dc.contributor.authorBartley, David J.
dc.contributor.authorBosco, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorCharlier, Johannes
dc.contributor.authorChartier, Christophe
dc.contributor.authorClaerebout, Edwin
dc.contributor.authorde Waal, Theo
dc.contributor.authorHendrickx, Guy
dc.contributor.authorHinney, Barbara
dc.contributor.authorHöglund, Johan
dc.contributor.authorJežek, Jožica
dc.contributor.authorKašný, Martin
dc.contributor.authorKeane, Orla M.
dc.contributor.authorMartínez-Valladares, María
dc.contributor.authorMateus, Teresa Letra
dc.contributor.authorMcIntyre, Jennifer
dc.contributor.authorMickiewicz, Marcin
dc.contributor.authorMunoz, Ana Maria
dc.contributor.authorPhythian, Clare Joan
dc.contributor.authorPloeger, Harm W.
dc.contributor.authorRataj, Aleksandra Vergles
dc.contributor.authorSkuce, Philip J.
dc.contributor.authorSimin, Stanislav
dc.contributor.authorSotiraki, Smaragda
dc.contributor.authorSpinu, Marina
dc.contributor.authorStuen, Snorre
dc.contributor.authorThamsborg, Stig Milan
dc.contributor.authorVadlejch, Jaroslav
dc.contributor.authorVarady, Marian
dc.contributor.authorvon Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg
dc.contributor.authorRinaldi, Laura
dc.identifier.citationRose Vineer H, Morgan ER, Hertzberg H, et al. Increasing importance of anthelmintic resistance in European livestock: creation and meta-analysis of an open database. Parasite 2020;27:69. doi:
dc.descriptionpeer revieweden_US
dc.description.abstractHelminth infections are ubiquitous in grazing ruminant production systems, and are responsible for significant costs and production losses. Anthelmintic Resistance (AR) in parasites is now widespread throughout Europe, although there are still gaps in our knowledge in some regions and countries. AR is a major threat to the sustainability of modern ruminant livestock production, resulting in reduced productivity, compromised animal health and welfare, and increased greenhouse gas emissions through increased parasitism and farm inputs. A better understanding of the extent of AR in Europe is needed to develop and advocate more sustainable parasite control approaches. A database of European published and unpublished AR research on gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) was collated by members of the European COST Action “COMBAR” (Combatting Anthelmintic Resistance in Ruminants), and combined with data from a previous systematic review of AR in GIN. A total of 197 publications on AR in GIN were available for analysis, representing 535 studies in 22 countries and spanning the period 1980–2020. Reports of AR were present throughout the European continent and some reports indicated high within-country prevalence. Heuristic sample size-weighted estimates of European AR prevalence over the whole study period, stratified by anthelmintic class, varied between 0 and 48%. Estimated regional (country) prevalence was highly heterogeneous, ranging between 0% and 100% depending on livestock sector and anthelmintic class, and generally increased with increasing research effort in a country. In the few countries with adequate longitudinal data, there was a tendency towards increasing AR over time for all anthelmintic classes in GIN: aggregated results in sheep and goats since 2010 reveal an average prevalence of resistance to benzimidazoles (BZ) of 86%, macrocyclic lactones except moxidectin (ML) 52%, levamisole (LEV) 48%, and moxidectin (MOX) 21%. All major GIN genera survived treatment in various studies. In cattle, prevalence of AR varied between anthelmintic classes from 0–100% (BZ and ML), 0–17% (LEV) and 0–73% (MOX), and both Cooperia and Ostertagia survived treatment. Suspected AR in F. hepatica was reported in 21 studies spanning 6 countries. For GIN and particularly F. hepatica, there was a bias towards preferential sampling of individual farms with suspected AR, and research effort was biased towards Western Europe and particularly the United Kingdom. Ongoing capture of future results in the live database, efforts to avoid bias in farm recruitment, more accurate tests for AR, and stronger appreciation of the importance of AR among the agricultural industry and policy makers, will support more sophisticated analyses of factors contributing to AR and effective strategies to slow its spread.en_US
dc.publisherEDP Sciencesen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesParasite;Vol. 27
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International*
dc.subjectAnthelmintic resistanceen_US
dc.subjectGastrointestinal nematodesen_US
dc.titleIncreasing importance of anthelmintic resistance in European livestock: creation and meta-analysis of an open databaseen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Unionen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorLivestock Helminth Research Allianceen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorUK Research and Innovationen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorUniversity of Liverpool’s Institute of Infection and Global Healthen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorK Department of Food, Environment and Rural Affairsen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorScottish Government’s Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services (RESAS) divisionen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorSpanish “Ramón y Cajal” Programme of the Ministry of Economy and Competitivenessen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorCzech Republic Ministry of Education, Youth and Sportsen_US

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    Teagasc LIvestock Systems Department includes Dairy, Cattle and Sheep research.

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Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
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