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dc.contributor.authorGuerin, Emma
dc.contributor.authorShkoporov, Andrey N
dc.contributor.authorStockdale, Stephen R
dc.contributor.authorComas, Joan C
dc.contributor.authorKhokhlova, Ekaterina V
dc.contributor.authorClooney, Adam G
dc.contributor.authorDaly, Karen M
dc.contributor.authorDraper, Lorraine A
dc.contributor.authorStephens, Niamh
dc.contributor.authorScholz, Dimitri
dc.contributor.authorRoss, R. P
dc.contributor.authorHill, Colin
dc.date.accessioned2021-12-22T15:40:39Z
dc.date.available2021-12-22T15:40:39Z
dc.date.issued2021-04-12
dc.identifier.citationGuerin, E., Shkoporov, A.N., Stockdale, S.R. et al. Isolation and characterisation of ΦcrAss002, a crAss-like phage from the human gut that infects Bacteroides xylanisolvens. Microbiome 9, 89 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01036-7en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11019/2742
dc.descriptionpeer-revieweden_US
dc.description.abstractBackground The gut phageome comprises a complex phage community of thousands of individual strains, with a few highly abundant bacteriophages. CrAss-like phages, which infect bacteria of the order Bacteroidales, are the most abundant bacteriophage family in the human gut and make an important contribution to an individual’s core virome. Based on metagenomic data, crAss-like phages form a family, with four sub-families and ten candidate genera. To date, only three representatives isolated in pure culture have been reported: ΦcrAss001 and two closely related phages DAC15 and DAC17; all are members of the less abundant candidate genus VI. The persistence at high levels of both crAss-like phage and their Bacteroidales hosts in the human gut has not been explained mechanistically, and this phage-host relationship can only be properly studied with isolated phage-host pairs from as many genera as possible. Results Faeces from a healthy donor with high levels of crAss-like phage was used to initiate a faecal fermentation in a chemostat, with selected antibiotics chosen to inhibit rapidly growing bacteria and selectively enrich for Gram-negative Bacteroidales. This had the objective of promoting the simultaneous expansion of crAss-like phages on their native hosts. The levels of seven different crAss-like phages expanded during the fermentation, indicating that their hosts were also present in the fermenter. The enriched supernatant was then tested against individual Bacteroidales strains isolated from the same faecal sample. This resulted in the isolation of a previously uncharacterised crAss-like phage of candidate genus IV of the proposed Alphacrassvirinae sub-family, ΦcrAss002, that infects the gut commensal Bacteroides xylanisolvens. ΦcrAss002 does not form plaques or spots on lawns of sensitive cells, nor does it lyse liquid cultures, even at high titres. In keeping with the co-abundance of phage and host in the human gut, ΦcrAss002 and Bacteroides xylanisolvens can also co-exist at high levels when co-cultured in laboratory media. Conclusions We report the isolation and characterisation of ΦcrAss002, the first representative of the proposed Alphacrassvirinae sub-family of crAss-like phages. ΦcrAss002 cannot form plaques or spots on bacterial lawns but can co-exist with its host, Bacteroides xylanisolvens, at very high levels in liquid culture without impacting on bacterial numbers. Video abstracten_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherBiomed Centralen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesMicrobiome;
dc.subjectBacteriophagesen_US
dc.subjectcrAssphageen_US
dc.subjectcrAss-like phagesen_US
dc.subjectHuman gut phageomeen_US
dc.subjectHuman microbiomeen_US
dc.subjectPhage-host interactionsen_US
dc.titleIsolation and characterisation of ΦcrAss002, a crAss-like phage from the human gut that infects Bacteroides xylanisolvensen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.date.updated2021-04-19T07:41:17Z
dc.language.rfc3066en
dc.rights.holderThe Author(s)
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01036-7
dc.contributor.sponsorScience Foundation Irelanden_US
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Unionen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorJanssen Biotech, Inc.en_US
dc.contributor.sponsorGrantNumberSFI/12/RC/2273en_US
dc.contributor.sponsorGrantNumberSFI/14/SP APC/B3032en_US
refterms.dateFOA2021-12-22T15:40:39Z


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