• Body and carcass measurements, carcass conformation and tissue distribution of high dairy genetic merit Holstein, standard dairy genetic merit Friesian and Charolais x Holstein-Friesian male cattle

      McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G.; Neilan, R.; Moloney, Aidan P; Caffrey, Patrick J. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2007)
      The increased proportion of Holstein genes in the dairy herd may have undesirable consequences for beef production in Ireland. A total of 72 spring-born calves, (24 Holstein (HO), 24 Friesian (FR) and 24 Charolais X Holstein-Friesian (CH)) were reared from calfhood to slaughter. Calves were artificially reared indoors and spent their first summer at pasture following which they were assigned to a 3 breeds (HO, FR and CH) 2 production systems (intensive 19-month bull beef and extensive 25-month steer beef) 2 slaughter weights (560 and 650 kg) factorial experiment. Body measurements of all animals were recorded at the same time before the earliest slaughter date. After slaughter, carcasses were graded and measured and the pistola hind-quarter was separated into fat, bone and muscle. HO had significantly higher values for withers height, pelvic height and chest depth than FR, which in turn had higher values than CH. HO had a longer back and a narrower chest than either FR or CH, which were not significantly different. Carcass length and depth, pistola length, and leg length were 139.2, 134.4 and 132.0 (s.e. 0.81), 52.1, 51.3 and 47.7 (s.e. 0.38), 114.4, 109.0 and 107.0 (s.e. 0.65) and 76.7, 71.9 and 71.4 (s.e. 0.44) cm for HO, FR and CH, respectively. Breed differences in pistola tissue distribution between the joints were small and confined to the distal pelvic limb and ribs. There were relatively small breed differences in the distribution of pistola muscle weight between individual muscles. Body measurements were significantly greater for animals on the intensive system (bulls) than the extensive system (steers) in absolute terms, but the opposite was so when they were expressed relative to live weight. The only significant difference in relative carcass measurements between the production systems was for carcass depth, which was lower for the intensive compared with the extensive system. Increasing slaughter weight significantly increased all carcass measurements in absolute terms but reduced them relative to weight. It is concluded that there were large differences between the breed types in body and carcass measurements, and hence in carcass shape and compactness but differences in tissue distribution were small.
    • Effect of age and nutrient restriction pre partum on beef suckler cow serum immunoglobulin concentrations, colostrum yield, composition and immunoglobulin concentration and immune status of their progeny

      McGee, Mark; Drennan, Michael J; Caffrey, Patrick J.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2006)
      The effect of cow age (multiparous (MP) v. primiparous (PP)) and nutritional restriction pre partum (grass silage ad libitum v. straw only ad libitum for the last 15 (s.d. 3.3) days of gestation) on cow serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration, on colostrum yield, composition and Ig concentration and on calf serum Ig concentrations (at ~8 and 48 h post partum) using spring-calving Limousin Holstein-Friesian cows and their progeny was studied over 3 years. The method of colostrum administration (stomach tube vs. assisted suckling within 1 h post partum) on calf immune status was also investigated. When feeding colostrum the target was to give each calf 50 mL per kg birthweight via stomach tube. Colostrum yield and Ig concentration were measured following administration of oxytocin and hand-milking of half (Experiments 1 and 2) or the complete udder (Experiment 3). Following an 8-h period after birth during which suckling was prevented a further colostrum sample was obtained. There was no significant difference in first milking colostrum Ig subclass concentrations between the within-quarter fractions or between the front and rear quarters of the udder in either MP or PP cows. Colostrum Ig subclass concentrations at second milking were 0.46 to 0.65 of that at first milking. Compared to MP cows offered silage, colostrum yield and the mass of colostrum IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and total Ig produced was lower (P < 0.001) for PP cows and the mass of IgG1, IgM and total Ig produced was lower (P < 0.05) for MP cows offered straw. Calves from PP cows and MP cows offered straw had significantly lower serum IgG1 and total Ig concentrations at 48 h post partum than calves from MP cows offered silage but there was no difference (P > 0.05) between colostrum feeding methods. In conclusion, calves from PP cows and MP cows offered straw had a lower humoral immune status than those from MP cows offered grass silage.
    • Effect of creep feeding, dietary fumaric acid and level of dairy product in the diet on post-weaning pig performance

      Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan; Caffrey, Patrick J. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      Fumaric acid (FA), level of dairy product in the diet and creep feeding were evaluated in three experiments using individually fed pigs (weaned at ca. 21 days and weighing about 6 kg). They were assigned at random to treatments. In Experiment 1, the treatments were: (1) no pre-weaning creep and no FA post-weaning, (2) no pre-weaning creep and 20 g/kg FA post-weaning, (3) pre-weaning creep and no FA post-weaning, and (4) pre-weaning creep and 20 g/kg FA post-weaning. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: (1) 50 g/kg dried whey, (2) 50 g/kg whey with 20 g/kg FA, (3) 50 g/kg whey with 30 g/kg FA, (4) 200 g/kg whey, (5) 200 g/kg whey with 20 g/kg FA, (6) 200 g/kg whey with 30 g/kg FA. In Experiment 3, the treatments were: (1) high dairy product (whey plus skim milk powder) diet, (2) high dairy product diet with 20 g/kg FA, (3) low dairy product diet, (4) low dairy product diet with 20 g/kg FA. The number of pigs per treatment in Experiments 1, 2 and 3 was 16, 10 and 10, respectively. All diets contained barley, wheat, herring meal and full-fat soybean meal. In Experiment 1, FA inclusion increased intake (518 ν. 466, s.e.d. 21.5 g/day, P < 0.05), daily gain (339 ν. 280, s.e.d. 18.1 g/day, P < 0.01) and improved feed conversion rate (1.55 ν. 1.70, s.e.d. 0.06, P < 0.05) in the first 3 weeks post-weaning. In Experiment 2, there was no effect of treatment. In Experiment 3, increasing the level of dairy product in the diet increased feed intake (P = 0.06) and daily gain (P < 0.05) and improved feed conversion rate (P < 0.01). The conclusions are that FA improved post-weaning performance and that increasing the level of dairy products in postweaning diets also improved performance.
    • Effect of fumaric acid, calcium formate and mineral levels in diets on the intake and growth performance of newly weaned pigs

      Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan; Caffrey, Patrick J. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2006)
      The weaned pig has limited ability to acidify its stomach contents. The objective of this study (comprising three experiments) was to examine the effect of feeding diets containing fumaric acid (FA), calcium formate (CF) or diets of low acid binding capacity (ABC) on post-weaning pig performance. In all three experiments, pigs (10 per treatment) were weaned at 19 to 24 days, blocked on sex and weight and assigned at random to one of six treatments. In Experiment 1, treatments were: (1) control diet, (2) control 20 g/kg FA, (3) control 15 g/kg CF, (4) low Ca (2.8 g/kg) and P (5.1 g/kg) (LCaP) diet for seven days followed by the control diet, (5) LCaP diet for seven days followed by control 20 g/kg FA, and (6) LCaP diet for seven days followed by control 15 g/kg CF. In Experiment 2, treatments were: (1) control diet, (2) control 20 g/kg FA, (3) control 15 g/kg CF, (4) LCaP diet for 14 days followed by the control diet, (5) LCaP diet for 14 days followed by control 20 g/kg FA, and (6) LCaP diet for seven days followed by control diet. In Experiment 3, treatments were: (1) high Ca (HC) diet (12 g/kg), (2) medium Ca (MC) diet (9 g/kg), (3) low Ca (LC) diet (6 g/kg), (4) HC 20 g/kg FA, (5) MC 20 g/kg FA, and (6) LC 20 g/kg FA. Pigs were individually fed for 26 days. In Experiment 1, CF tended to depress daily feed intake (DFI) in the final two weeks (691 v. 759 and 749, (s.e. 19) g/day, P = 0.07) and overall average daily gain (322 v. 343 and 361 (s.e. 11) g/day, P = 0.09) compared with the control and FA supplemented diets, respectively. Feeding diets with LCaP for seven days post weaning increased DFI (208 v. 178, (s.e. 8) g/day, P < 0.01) in week 1 and tended to improve feed conversion rate in the first two weeks (1.65 v. 1.85, s.e. 0.10, P = 0.09). In Experiment 2, treatment had no significant effect on pig performance but feed conversion rate in weeks three and four was improved for Treatment 5 compared with Treatment 4 (1.30 v. 1.39 (s.e. 0.06) g/g, P < 0.01). In experiment 3, FA increased (P < 0.05) pig weight at day 14 (8.4 v. 7.7 (s.e. 0.2) kg) and feed intake in weeks one and two (223 v. 251, (s.e. 9) g/day). It is concluded that CF did not improve performance but reducing diet ABC or including FA in the diet did improve performance.
    • Effect of suckler cow genotype on cow serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, colostrum yield, composition and Ig concentration and subsequent immune status of their progeny

      McGee, Mark; Drennan, Michael J; Caffrey, Patrick J. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      Survival of the neonatal calf is largely dependent on humoral immunity. The objective of three experiments reported here was to compare cow serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration, colostrum yield, composition and Ig concentration and calf serum Ig concentrations at ~8- and 48-h post partum of spring-calving Charolais (C) and Beef × Holstein-Friesian (BF) cows and their progeny. Cows were individually offered a restricted allowance of grass silage pre partum in Experiments 1 and 2 and silage ad libitum in Experiment 3. In Experiment 1 calves were assisted to suckle after parturition. In Experiments 2 and 3, colostrum yield and Ig concentration were measured following administration of oxytocin and hand milking of half or the complete udder, respectively. It was intended to feed each calf 50 ml (Experiment 2) or 40 ml (Experiment 3) of colostrum per 1 kg birth weight via stomach tube. Following an 8-h period, during which suckling was prevented, a further colostrum sample was obtained. The decrease in cow serum IgG1 concentration pre partum was greater (P < 0.05) in BF cows than C cows. In comparison to BF cows, C cows had a lower colostrum yield (P < 0.001) and the colostrum had lower concentrations of dry matter (P < 0.01), crude protein (P < 0.05), fat (P < 0.05), IgG1 (P = 0.06), IgG2 (P < 0.01), IgM (P < 0.01) and Ig total (P < 0.05). The mass of IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and Ig total in the colostrum produced was significantly lower for C cows than BF cows. Calves from C cows had significantly lower serum Ig subclass concentration at 48-h post partum than calves from BF cows. In conclusion, due to a lower Ig mass produced by their dams, calves from C cows had a lower humoral immune status than those from BF cows
    • Effect of suckler cow genotype on energy requirements and performance in winter and subsequently at pasture

      McGee, Mark; Drennan, Michael J; Caffrey, Patrick J. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      Three experiments using a total of 62 Charolais (C) and 110 Beef × Holstein-Friesian (BF) spring-calving cows were carried out to determine the relative energy requirements of the genotypes. Cows were individually offered a restricted allowance of grass silage daily during the last 85 and 107 days pre partum in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, and ad libitum grass silage during the last 93 days pre partum in Experiment 3. In all 3 experiments grass silage was offered ad libitum during the first 34 days of lactation. In Experiments 1 and 2, cows and calves were grazed together during the subsequent grazing seasons. When fed to appetite, silage dry matter intake was similar for both cow genotypes but was higher for the BF cows when expressed relative to live weight. For Experiments 1 and 2 combined, initial live weights and live weight changes to post-partum, over the indoor period and at pasture were 720 (s.e. 14.1), 613 (s.e. 8.4), –74 (s.e. 4.0), –63 (s.e. 2.7), –106 (s.e. 6.0), –89 (s.e. 4.0) and 120 (s.e. 7.0), 88 (s.e. 5.3) kg for C and BF cows, respectively. In Experiment 3 the corresponding initial live weights and live weight changes to post partum were 759 (s.e. 12.3), 659 (s.e. 9.1) and –63 (s.e. 4.9) and –52 (s.e. 3.5) kg. There was no effect of genotype on body condition score or adipose cell diameter or their changes. Plasma creatinine concentrations were higher (P < 0.001) in C cows than BF cows. It is concluded that the energy requirements of a 660 kg C cow are approximately equivalent to a 600 kg BF cow during late pregnancy.
    • Effect of suckler cow genotype on milk yield and pre-weaning calf performance

      McGee, Mark; Drennan, Michael J; Caffrey, Patrick J.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      Milk yield and pre-weaning calf performance of spring-calving Charolais (C) and Beef × Holstein-Friesian (BF) cows was compared over 3 experiments. Cows were individually offered a restricted allowance of grass silage pre partum in Experiments 1 and 2 and ad libitum silage in Experiment 3. In all three experiments cows received silage to appetite for the first 34 (s.d. 16.2) days of lactation. In Experiments 1 and 2, cows and calves were grazed together during the subsequent grazing seasons. The daily milk yield of C cows was significantly lower from parturition until turnout to pasture (1.8 to 2.5 kg/day lower) and subsequently at pasture (4.5 and 3.1 kg/day lower in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) than that of BF cows. Calves from C cows consumed more (P <0.01) concentrate creep feed during the indoor period than calves from BF cows. Compared to calves from BF cows, pre-weaning daily live-weight gain was lower for calves from C cows in Experiments 1 (P < 0.05) and 2 (P = 0.06). The pre-weaning growth response per 1 kg increase in milk yield was greater for calves from C cows than those from BF cows. In conclusion, compared to BF cows the milk yield of C cows was lower resulting in increased calf concentrate intake indoors and lower pre-weaning calf daily live-weight gains.
    • Measurements of the acid-binding capacity of ingredients used in pig diets

      Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan; Caffrey, Patrick J.; O'Reilly, James J; O'Connell, M. Karen (Biomed Central, 2005-08-01)
      Some feed ingredients bind more acid in the stomach than others and for this reason may be best omitted from pig starter foods if gastric acidity is to be promoted. The objective of this study was to measure the acid-binding capacity (ABC) of ingredients commonly used in pig starter foods. Ingredients were categorised as follows: (i) milk products (n = 6), (ii) cereals (n = 10), (iii) root and pulp products (n = 5), (iv) vegetable proteins (n = 11), (v) meat and fish meal (n = 2), (vi) medication (n = 3), (vii) amino acids (n = 4), (viii) minerals (n = 16), (ix) acid salts (n = 4), (x) acids (n = 10). A 0.5 g sample of food was suspended in 50 ml distilled de-ionised water with continuous stirring. This suspension was titrated with 0.1 mol/L HCl or 0.1 mol/L NaOH so that approximately 10 additions of titrant was required to reach pH 3.0. The pH readings after each addition were recorded following equilibration for three minutes. ABC was calculated as the amount of acid in milliequivalents (meq) required to lower the pH of 1 kg food to (a) pH 4.0 (ABC-4) and (b) pH 3.0 (ABC-3). Categories of food had significantly different (P < 0.01) ABC values. Mean ABC-4 and ABC-3 values of the ten categories were: (i) 623 (s.d. 367.0) and 936 (s.d. 460.2), (ii) 142 (s.d. 79.2) and 324 (s.d. 146.4), (iii) 368 (s.d. 65.3) and 804 (s.d. 126.7), (iv) 381 (s.d. 186.1) and 746 (s.d. 227.0), (v) 749 (s.d. 211.6) and 1508 (s.d. 360.8), (vi) 120 (s.d. 95.6) and 261 (s.d. 163.2), (vii) 177 (s.d. 60.7) and 1078 (s.d. 359.0), (viii) 5064 (s.d. 5525.1) and 7051 (s.d. 5911.6), (ix) 5057 (s.d. 1336.6) and 8945 (s.d. 2654.1) and (x) -5883 (s.d. 4220.5) and -2591 (s.d. 2245.4) meq HCl per kg, respectively. Within category, ABC-3 and ABC- 4 values were highly correlated: R2 values of 0.80 and greater for food categories i, iv, v, vi, vii and viii. The correlation between predicted and observed ABC values of 34 mixed diets was 0.83 for ABC-4 and 0.71 for ABC-3. It was concluded that complete diets with low ABC values may be formulated through careful selection of ingredients. The final pH to which ABC is measured should matter little as ABC-3 and ABC-4 are highly correlated.
    • Non-carcass parts and carcass composition of high dairy genetic merit Holstein, standard dairy genetic merit Friesian and Charolais × Holstein-Friesian steers

      McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G.; Neilan, R.; Moloney, Aidan P; Caffrey, Patrick J. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2008)
      The increased use of Holstein genetic material in the dairy herd has consequences for beef production. A total of 24 spring-born calves comprising 8 Holsteins (HO), 8 Friesians (FR) and 8 Charolais × Holstein-Friesians (CH) were reared from calfhood to slaughter. At the end of the second grazing season they were assigned to a 3 (breeds; HO, FR and CH) × 2 (slaughter weights; 620 and 730 kg) factorial experiment and fin¬ished indoors. After slaughter carcasses were classified for conformation and fatness, all organs and non-carcass parts were weighed, and the right side of each carcass was dissected into fat, bone and muscle. Non-carcass parts, carcass weight, kill-out propor¬tion, carcass conformation score and m. longissimus area were 405, 398 and 368 (s.e. 8.31) g/kg empty body weight, 355, 344 and 383 (s.e. 9.4) kg, 509, 520 and 545 (s.e. 8.99) g/kg, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.1 (s.e. 0.16), 7616, 7096 and 9286 (s.e. 223.4) mm2 for HO, FR and CH, respectively. Corresponding proportions of carcass muscle and fat were 631, 614 and 656 (s.e. 8.4), and 165, 200 and 165 (s.e. 10.5) g/kg. Increasing slaughter weight increased the proportion of total non-carcass parts, carcass weight, carcass fat score and fat proportion, and reduced carcass muscle and bone proportions. It is concluded that differences in kill-out proportion between the two dairy breeds was primarily due to the lower proportion of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in FR, and the higher kill-out proportion of CH was mainly due to lower proportions of GIT, internal organs and internal fat. In terms of beef production, HO and FR were broadly comparable for most traits except carcass conformation score and carcass fat proportion, which were lower for HO. CH was superior to the dairy breeds in all important production traits.
    • Production and carcass traits of high dairy genetic merit Holstein, standard dairy genetic merit Friesian and Charolais × Holstein-Friesian male cattle

      McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G.; Neilan, R.; Moloney, Aidan P; Caffrey, Patrick J. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      The increased proportion of Holstein genetic material in the dairy herd has consequences for beef production in Ireland. A total of 72 spring-born male calves (24 Holsteins (HO), 24 Friesian (FR) and 24 Charolais × Holstein-Friesians (CH)) were reared from calfhood to slaughter. Calves were artificially reared indoors and spent their first summer at pasture following which they were assigned, on a breed basis, to a factorial combination of two production systems (intensive 19-month bull beef and extensive 25-month steer beef) and two slaughter weights (560 and 650 kg). After slaughter the pistola hind quarter was separated into fat, bone and muscle. Live-weight gain, carcass gain, kill-out proportion, carcass conformation and carcass fat scores were 830, 811 and 859 (s.e. 14.9) g/day, 540, 533, 585 (s.e. 7.7) g/day, 526, 538 and 561 (s.e. 3.0) g/kg, 1.51, 2.18 and 2.96 (s.e. 0.085), and 3.40, 4.25 and 4.06 (s.e. 0.104) for HO, FR and CH, respectively. Corresponding values for pistola weight as a proportion of carcass weight, pistola muscle proportion and pistola fat proportion were 458, 459 and 461 (s.e. 2.6) g/kg, 657, 645 and 667 (s.e. 3.7) g/kg, and 132, 161 and 145 (s.e. 4.1) g/kg. Compared with the intensive system, animals on the extensive system had a lower (P < 0.001) daily live-weight gain, kill-out proportion and a lower muscle proportion in the pistola. Increasing slaughter weight increased (P < 0.001) carcass weight and carcass fat score and reduced the proportion of muscle in the pistola. Allometric regression coefficients for pistola weight on side weight, and total bone, muscle and fat weights on pistola weight were 0.898, 0.755, 0.900 and 1.910 respectively. It is concluded that HO grew at least as fast as FR but had a lower killout proportion. Carcass conformation and fat scores were greater for FR than for HO and muscle proportion in the pistola was lower and total fat proportion was higher. Compared with FR, CH had heavier carcasses, a higher kill-out proportion and less fat and more muscle in the pistola.