• A differential interplay between the expression of Th1/Th2/Treg related cytokine genes in Teladorsagia circumcincta infected DRB1*1101 carrier lambs

      Hassan, Musa; Hanrahan, James P; Good, Barbara; Mulcahy, Grace; Sweeney, Torres; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Biomed Central, 2011-03-08)
      Substantial debate exists on whether the immune response between sheep resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes can be differentiated into a Th1 and Th2 phenotype. The present study addresses the hypothesis that variation in resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta between DRB1*1101 (associated with reduced faecal egg count and worm burden) carriers and non-carriers is due to a differential interplay in the expression of Th1/Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) related cytokine genes. Lambs from each genotype were either slaughtered at day 0 (un-infected control) or infected with 3 × 104 Teladorsagia circumcincta L3 and slaughtered at 3, 7, 21, and 35 days later. Lambs carrying the DRB1*1101 allele had a significantly lower worm burden (P < 0.05) compared to the non-carriers. Abomasal mucosal cytokine gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and comparison made for time and genotype effects. The response generated varied through the course of infection and was affected by genotype. DRB1*1101 carriers had an up-regulated expression of the Th1-related cytokine genes (IL-1β, TNFα, and IFN-γ) at day 3, but this was replaced by an up-regulated expression of Th2-related cytokine genes (IL-10 and IL-13) and Treg-related cytokine genes (IL-2RA-CD25, TGFα, TGFβ, Arg2, MIF and FOXP3) by day 7. Conversely, in the non-carriers these changes in gene expression were delayed until days 7 and 21 post infection (pi), respectively. It is concluded that resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta in animals carrying the DRB1*1101 allele is influenced by an earlier interplay between Th1, Th2 and T regulatory immune response genes.
    • The dynamic influence of the DRB1*1101 allele on the resistance of sheep to experimental Teladorsagia circumcincta infection

      Hassan, Musa; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P; Campion, Deirdre P; Sayers, Gearoid; Mulcahy, Grace; Sweeney, Torres; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Biomed Central, 2011-03-08)
      Suffolk sheep carrying the DRB1*1101 (previously referred to as-DRB1*0203 or G2) allele have been reported to show increased resistance to natural Teladorsagia circumcincta infection compared to non-carriers. The objective of this study was to compare the biochemical and physiological responses of DRB1*1101 carrier and non-carrier twin lambs to an experimental infection with 3 × 104 L3 Teladorsagia circumcincta. The variables studied included worm burden, faecal egg count, abomasal mast cells, IgA, IgE, IgG1 plus IgG2 and haematological parameters at 0, 3, 7, 21 and 35 days post infection (dpi), and duodenal smooth muscle contractility at 0 and 35 dpi. DRB1*1101 carrier lambs had significantly lower worm burden, higher mast cell and plasma platelet counts than the DRB1*1101 non-carriers (P < 0.05). Before infection, the non-carrier lambs exhibited significantly higher mucosal levels of all antibody isotypes measured compared to the carriers; these levels remained relatively stable over the course of infection in the non-carriers while there was a slow build up of these antibodies in the carriers up to day 21 post infection (pi). The DRB1*1101 non-carrier lambs had a significantly higher plasma lymphocyte count, and produced greater duodenal contractile force relative to the carrier lambs (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between genotypes in the level of plasma eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils or FEC. This evidence suggests that resistance conferred by DRB1*1101 is acquired rather than innate, depends on worm expulsion rather than fecundity and is dependent on mucosal mast cell proliferation, platelet activation, and IgA and IgE antibody responses.