• Alterations in hepatic miRNA expression during negative energy balance in postpartum dairy cattle

      Fatima, Attia; Waters, Sinead M.; O'Boyle, Padraig; Seoighe, Cathal; Morris, Dermot G.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Biomed Central, 2014-01-15)
      Background Negative energy balance (NEB), an altered metabolic state, occurs in early postpartum dairy cattle when energy demands to support lactation exceed energy intake. During NEB the liver undergoes oxidative stress and increased breakdown of fatty acids accompanied by changes in gene expression. It is now known that micro RNAs (miRNA) can have a role in mediating such alterations in gene expression through repression or degradation of target mRNAs. miRNA expression is known to be altered by metabolism and environmental factors and miRNAs are implicated in expression modulation of metabolism related genes. Results miRNA expression was profiled in the liver of moderate yielding dairy cattle under severe NEB (SNEB) and mild NEB (MNEB) using the Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA_2.0 array with 679 probe sets for Bos-taurus miRNAs. Ten miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed using the ‘samr’ statistical package (delta = 0.6) at a q-value FDR of < 12%. Five miRNAs including miR-17-5p, miR-31, miR-140, miR-1281 and miR-2885 were validated using RT-qPCR, to be up-regulated under SNEB. Liver diseases associated with these miRNAs include non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR-140 and miR-17-5p are known to show differential expression under oxidative stress. A total of 32 down-regulated putative target genes were also identified among 418 differentially expressed hepatic genes previously reported for the same animal model. Among these, GPR37 (G protein-coupled receptor 37), HEYL (hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like), DNJA1, CD14 (Cluster of differentiation 14) and GNS (glucosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase) are known to be associated with hepatic metabolic disorders. In addition miR-140 and miR-2885 have binding sites on the most down-regulated of these genes, FADS2 (Fatty acid desaturase 2) which encodes an enzyme critical in lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, HNF3-gamma (Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma), a hepatic transcription factor (TF) that is involved in IGF-1 expression regulation and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is a putative target of miR-31. Conclusions This study shows that SNEB affects liver miRNA expression and these miRNAs have putative targets in hepatic genes down-regulated under this condition. This study highlights the potential role of miRNAs in transcription regulation of hepatic gene expression during SNEB in dairy cattle. Background Negative energy balance (NEB), an altered metabolic state, occurs in early postpartum dairy cattle when energy demands to support lactation exceed energy intake. During NEB the liver undergoes oxidative stress and increased breakdown of fatty acids accompanied by changes in gene expression. It is now known that micro RNAs (miRNA) can have a role in mediating such alterations in gene expression through repression or degradation of target mRNAs. miRNA expression is known to be altered by metabolism and environmental factors and miRNAs are implicated in expression modulation of metabolism related genes. Results miRNA expression was profiled in the liver of moderate yielding dairy cattle under severe NEB (SNEB) and mild NEB (MNEB) using the Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA_2.0 array with 679 probe sets for Bos-taurus miRNAs. Ten miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed using the ‘samr’ statistical package (delta = 0.6) at a q-value FDR of < 12%. Five miRNAs including miR-17-5p, miR-31, miR-140, miR-1281 and miR-2885 were validated using RT-qPCR, to be up-regulated under SNEB. Liver diseases associated with these miRNAs include non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR-140 and miR-17-5p are known to show differential expression under oxidative stress. A total of 32 down-regulated putative target genes were also identified among 418 differentially expressed hepatic genes previously reported for the same animal model. Among these, GPR37 (G protein-coupled receptor 37), HEYL (hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like), DNJA1, CD14 (Cluster of differentiation 14) and GNS (glucosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase) are known to be associated with hepatic metabolic disorders. In addition miR-140 and miR-2885 have binding sites on the most down-regulated of these genes, FADS2 (Fatty acid desaturase 2) which encodes an enzyme critical in lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, HNF3-gamma (Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma), a hepatic transcription factor (TF) that is involved in IGF-1 expression regulation and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is a putative target of miR-31. Conclusions This study shows that SNEB affects liver miRNA expression and these miRNAs have putative targets in hepatic genes down-regulated under this condition. This study highlights the potential role of miRNAs in transcription regulation of hepatic gene expression during SNEB in dairy cattle.
    • Associations between the K232A polymorphism in the diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 (DGAT1) gene and performance in Irish Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

      Berry, Donagh; Howard, Dawn J.; O'Boyle, Padraig; Waters, Sinead M.; Kearney, J.F.; McCabe, Matthew (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2010)
      Selection based on genetic polymorphisms requires accurate quantification of the effect or association of the polymorphisms with all traits of economic importance. The objective of this study was to estimate, using progeny performance data on 848 Holstein-Friesian bulls, the association between a non-conservative alanine to lysine amino acid change (K232A) in exon 8 of the diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 (DGAT1) gene and milk production and functionality in the Irish Holstein-Friesian population. The DGAT1 gene encodes the diacylglycerol-O-transferase microsomal enzyme necessary to catalyze the final step in triglyceride synthesis. Weighted mixed model methodology, accounting for the additive genetic relationships among animals, was used to evaluate the association between performance and the K232A polymorphism. The minor allele frequency (K allele) was 0.32. One copy of the K allele was associated (P < 0.001) with 77 kg less milk yield, 4.22 kg more fat yield, 0.99 kg less protein yield, and 1.30 and 0.28 g/kg greater milk fat and protein concentration, respectively; all traits were based on predicted 305-day production across the first five lactations. The K232A polymorphism explained 4.8%, 10.3% and 1.0% of the genetic variance in milk yield, fat yield and protein yield, respectively. There was no association between the K232A polymorphism and fertility, functional survival, calving performance, carcass traits, or any conformation trait with the exception of rump width and carcass conformation. Using the current economic values for the milk production traits in the Irish total merit index, one copy of the K allele is worth €5.43 in expected profitability of progeny. Results from this study will be useful in quantifying the cost-benefit of including the K232A polymorphism in the Irish national breeding programme.