• Effect of different forage types on the volatile and sensory properties of bovine milk

      Faulkner, Hope; O'Callaghan, Tom; McAuliffe, Stephen; Hennessy, Deirdre; STANTON, CATHERINE; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 13SN401 (Elsevier, 2017-12-08)
      The effect of 3 diets (grass, grass/clover, and total mixed ration) on the volatile and sensory properties of bovine milk was assessed over an entire lactation season. Little evidence was found of direct transfer of terpenes into raw milk from the different diets, and it is likely that the monocultures of ryegrass used with and without white clover were factors as these contained very few terpenes. Evidence of direct transfer of nonterpene volatiles from forage to the subsequent raw milks was probable; however, differences in the protein carbohydrate availability and digestion in the rumen appeared to have a greater contribution to volatile profiles. Pasteurization significantly altered the volatile profiles of all milks. A direct link between the milk fatty acid content, forage, and volatile products of lipid oxidation was also evident and differences in fatty acid content of milk due to forage may also have influenced the viscosity perception of milk. Irish sensory assessors preferred pasteurized milk produced from grass-fed cows, with least preference from milk produced from total mixed ration diets. β-Carotene content was significantly higher in milks derived from grass or grass/clover and appears to have directly influenced color perception. Toluene and p-cresol are both degradation products of β-carotene and along with β-carotene were identified as potential biomarkers for milk derived from pasture. The only correlation that appeared to influence the flavor of milk as determined using ranked descriptive analysis was p-cresol. P-Cresol appears to be responsible for the barnyard aroma of milk and is also likely derived from the deamination and decarboxylation of tryptophan and tyrosine due to the higher levels of available protein in the grass and grass/clover diets. The highest levels of p-cresol were in the grass/clover diets and are likely due to the degradation of the isoflavone formononetin in the rumen, which is present in white clover swards.
    • Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens proteases on the quality of Cheddar cheese

      Paludetti, Lizandra F.; O'Callaghan, Tom; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Gleeson, David E; Kelly, Alan L.; Dairy Research Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship; MKLS6643; 2015045 (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adding different levels of a thermoresistant protease produced by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain to milk on the manufacture and quality of Cheddar cheese. Fresh raw milk was collected, standardized, and pasteurized at 72°C for 15 s, and the enzyme was added to give a protease activity of 0.15 or 0.60 U/L (treatments P1 and P4, respectively), while one sample had no enzyme added (control). Milk was stored at 4°C for 48 h and Cheddar cheese was manufactured after 0 and 48 h of storage. Results indicated that the protease was active in milk during 48 h of storage; however, its effect on milk composition was minimal. The protein that was preferentially hydrolyzed by the protease over storage was β-casein, followed by κ-casein. The mean cheese yield and recovery of fat and protein obtained for all cheeses were not affected by protease activity. The protease showed low activity during cheese manufacture, possibly because of unfavorable conditions, including low pH. One of the factors that might have influenced protease activity was the pH of the curd (approximately 6.55 after acidification and 5.35 at milling), which was lower than that at which the enzyme would have optimum activity (pH 7 to 9). Consequently, the composition, pH, patterns of proteolysis, and hardness of all cheeses produced were similar and in accordance with values expected for that type of cheese, independently of the protease activity level. However, slight increases in proteolysis were observed in P4 cheeses and produced using milk stored for 48 h. Both the P1 and P4 cheeses had higher concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) compared with the control, whereas urea-PAGE electrophoretograms indicated a greater breakdown of caseins in the P4 cheese samples, which may be related to possible increases in numbers of proteolytic bacteria in milk during storage. Therefore, the thermoresistant psychrotrophic bacterial protease(s) tested in this study may affect the manufacture or quality of Cheddar cheese during ripening to a relatively limited extent. However, controlling initial levels of proteolytic bacteria in raw milk remains essential, because proteolysis affects the development of flavor and texture in cheese.