• Effect of cereal soaking and carbohydrase supplementation on growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microbiota in liquid-fed grow-finishing pigs

      Torres-Pitarch, Alberto; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Cormican, Paul; Rea, Mary; Crispie, Fiona; O'Doherty, John V.; Cozannet, Pierre; Ryan, Thomas; Cullen, James; Lawlor, Peadar G.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-01-23)
      This study aimed to determine the impact of fermenting the cereal fraction of the diet (Cferm) and enzyme supplementation (ENZ) on the bacterial composition of the feed, nutrient digestibility, pig growth, feed efciency (FE), intestinal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and intestinal microbiota composition. A total of 252 grow-fnisher pigs (~ 40.4 kg; 7 pigs/pen) were randomly allocated to 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for 55d. The diets were: (1) fresh liquid feed (Fresh); (2) Cferm liquid feed (Ferm); (3) Fresh+ENZ and (4) Ferm+ENZ. Cferm increased total tract nutrient digestibility, reduced caecal butyrate and propionate concentrations, and increased average daily gain (ADG). ENZ increased ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility, reduced caecal isobutyrate and propionate concentrations, and improved FE. Bacterial taxa positively correlated with pig growth (Lactobacillus kisonensis in the ileum and Roseburia faecis in the caecum) were more abundant in pigs fed ENZ diets, whereas most of the ileal bacterial taxa negatively correlated with growth (Megasphaera, Bifdobacterium and Streptococcus) had lower abundance in pigs fed Cferm diets. In conclusion, Cferm increased ADG and ENZ improved FE, with these improvements possibly mediated by increased nutrient digestibility, and benefcial modulation of the intestinal microbiota.
    • The effect of floor type in farrowing crates on piglet welfare

      Lewis, Eva; Boyle, Laura; O'Doherty, John V.; Brophy, P.; Lynch, P Brendan; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      The effect on piglet welfare of different combinations of flooring in the sow and piglet areas of farrowing crates was examined. One hundred and three multiparous sows were housed, from one week pre-farrowing through farrowing and lactation to weaning, in farrowing crates with one of five flooring combinations: SS – slatted steel in both the sow and piglet areas of the crate; SP – slatted steel sow flooring and plasticcoated expanded metal for the piglets; AP – slatted steel (with a checker-plate panel)sow flooring and plastic-coated expanded metal for the piglets; CP – expanded cast iron sow flooring and plastic-coated expanded metal for the piglets; PP – plastic-coated woven wire sow flooring and plastic-coated expanded metal for the piglets. The number of litters assigned to SS, SP, AP, CP and PP were 27, 23, 17, 18 and 18, respectively. All piglet areas had a water-heated pad. Piglets were examined for lesions, scored from zero to three according to severity, at six locations on each foot and at seven locations on each limb during the suckling period. Addition of scores at each location yielded a foot and limb lesion score. In addition, the proportion of piglets in a litter affected by at least one injury was calculated for each of the following: the carpal joints, coronets, accessory digits, footpads. Piglet behaviour was recorded for 2 h, between 1330 and 1630, at 24 h after birth. Litters were weighed at birth and at weaning, and all deaths were recorded during the suckling period. SS litters had higher foot and limb lesion scores (P < 0.001). In addition, a greater proportion of piglets in SS litters were affected by at least one injury to the carpal joint, coronet, accessory digit and footpad (P < 0.001). SP piglets were active on the heatpad in more observations than AP piglets (P < 0.05). PP piglets were inactive in other areas of the pen in more observations than SS piglets (P < 0.05). There was no effect of treatment on piglet weight gain or mortality. It is concluded that the use of slatted steel in piglet areas of farrowing crates cannot be recommended because of injuries to piglets’ feet and limbs. The combination of slatted steel in the sow area and plastic-coated expanded metal in the piglet area encourages use of the heatpad. However, use of plastic-coated woven wire in the sow area encourages piglets to use this area which puts them in danger of being overlaid by the sow.
    • Effect of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or β-glucans on performance, feeding behaviour and immune status of Holstein Friesian bull calves during the pre- and post-weaning periods

      McDonnell, Ruairi P; O'Doherty, John V.; Earley, Bernadette; Clarke, Anne Marie; Kenny, David A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; 14/IA/2548 (Biomed Central, 2019-01-29)
      Background Previous research in both calves and other species has suggested n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and β-glucans may have positive effects on immune function. This experiment measured performance, behaviour, metabolite and immunological responses to pre-weaning supplementation of dairy bull calves with n-3 PUFA in the form of fish oil and β-glucans derived from seaweed extract. 44 Holstein Friesian bull calves, aged 13.7 ± 2.5 d and weighing 48.0 ± 5.8 kg were artificially reared using an electronic feeding system. Each calf was offered 5 L (120 g/L) per day of milk replacer (MR) and assigned to one of four treatments included in the MR, (1) Control (CON); (2) 40 g n-3 PUFA per day (FO); (3) 1 g β-glucans per day (GL) and (4) 40 g n-3 PUFA per day & 1 g/d β-glucans (FOGL) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Milk replacer and concentrate was offered from d 0–62 (pre-weaning), while concentrate provision continued for a further 31 d post-weaning period. Individual daily feed intake and feeding behaviour was recorded throughout, while bodyweight and blood analyte data were collected at regular intervals. Results Overall mean concentrate DMI from d 0–93 was 1.39, 1.27, 1.00 and 0.72 kg/d for CON, FO, GL and FOGL calves, respectively (SEM = 0.037; P < 0.0001). Calves supplemented with GL were significantly lighter (P < 0.0001) at both weaning (d 62) and turnout to pasture (d 93) than un-supplemented calves, with a similar effect (P < 0.0001) evident for calves receiving FO compared to un-supplemented contemporaries. Supplementation with GL reduced the number of unrewarded visits where milk was not consumed (P < 0.0001) while supplementation with FO increased mean drinking speed (P < 0.0001). Supplementation with GL resulted in greater concentrations of haptoglobin (P = 0.034), greater serum osmolality (P = 0.021) and lower lymphocyte levels (P = 0.027). In addition, cells from GL supplemented calves exhibited a lower response than un-supplemented contemporaries to both Phytohaemagglutinin A stimulated IFN-γ (P = 0.019) and Concanavalin A stimulated IFN-γ (P = 0.012) following in vitro challenges. Conclusions Pre-weaning supplementation of bull calves with either n-3 PUFA or β-glucan resulted in reduced voluntary feed intake of concentrate and consequently poorer pre-weaning calf performance. There was no evidence for any beneficial effect of either supplementation strategy on calves’ immune responses.
    • Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

      Lejeune, Alexandre; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; Earley, Bernadette; Black, Alistair D; Campion, Deirdre P; Englishby, Tanya; Reilly, Petrina; O'Doherty, John V.; Sweeney, Torres (Biomed Central, 2010-03-31)
      Background: Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results: A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) in comparison to those indoors. Following mitogen stimulation, a lower level of interferon-γ was produced in leukocytes from the outdoor animals (P < 0.05). There was evidence of a gastrointestinal nematode infection in the outdoor animals with elevated levels of serum pepsinogen (P < 0.001), a higher number of eosinophils (P < 0.05) and a higher level of interleukin-4 and stem cell factor mRNA expression (P < 0.05) in the outdoor animals in comparison to the indoor animals. Lower levels of copper and iodine were measured in the outdoor animals in comparison to indoor animals (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.
    • Studies on growth rates in pigs and the effect of birth weight

      Lynch, P Brendan; Cahill, A.; Lawlor, Peadar G; Boyle, Laura; O'Doherty, John V.; le Dividich, J.; National Development Programme (Teagasc, 2006-03-01)
      The purpose of this study was to assess some environmental and management factors that affect growth performance on commercial pig units. In experiment 1, a survey was carried out on 22 pig units of known growth performance in south-west Ireland to compare management factors between those showing poor and good growth rates. Low growth rate appears to be due to the cumulative effect of a combination of factors. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the effects of providing an additional feeder on performance of weaned piglets. No benefits were recorded. Feed consumed from the additional feeder was a replacement for feed that otherwise would have been consumed from the control hopper feeder. Experiment 3 was designed to determine if pig performance and efficiency of growth were affected by weight at birth and at weaning. Lightweight pigs showed inferior growth performance up to the finisher period. Although they compensated some of the inferior growth towards the time of slaughter, they never reached the weights of the heavy birth-weight animals. Males were either significantly heavier or tended to be heavier than females throughout. There was no significant difference between the sexes in the number of days to slaughter. Light and heavy pigs did not differ in the levels of IGF-1 in their blood plasma; however lightweight pigs had significantly lower IgG preweaning. Experiment 4 aimed to determine whether piglet birth weight influenced growth performance, plasma IGF-1 concentrations and muscle fibre characteristics at day 42 of life. At slaughter (Day 42) light birth weight pigs were significantly (P < 0.001) lighter. Plasma IGF-1 concentration was lower by 28% (P=0.06) in light pigs. Muscle fibre cross sectional area and total fibre number were not significantly different between groups. This study should be repeated with bigger numbers.
    • Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of feed enzymes on growth and nutrient digestibility in grow-finisher pigs: Effect of enzyme type and cereal source

      Torres-Pitarch, Alberto; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Gardiner, Gillian E.; O'Doherty, John V.; Lawlor, Peadar G; Teagasc; European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; PDPG6671; 311794 (Elsevier, 2019-12-28)
      Dietary supplementation of pig diets with exogenous enzymes has been suggested as a strategy to increase nutrient digestibility and improve feed efficiency in grow-finisher pigs. However, inconsistent results are found in the literature. Ingredient composition of the diets is one of the most important sources of variation that may affect enzyme efficacy and consistency of results. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was therefore conducted to determine which exogenous enzymes with which diet type most consistently improve pig growth, nutrient digestibility and feed efficiency. Enzyme type and dietary cereal source were the main explanatory variables included in the models. The mean difference effects of enzyme supplementation on average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain to feed (G:F), apparent ileal digestibility (AiD) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and gross energy (GE) were calculated for each study and these were used as the effect size estimates in the meta-analysis. A dataset with 139 comparisons from 67 peer-reviewed publications was used in the meta-analysis. In response to enzyme supplementation, G:F was improved in 38 of the 120 comparisons reporting pig growth data, remained un-changed in 78 and deteriorated in 4. Overall, DM and GE AiD, and ATTD were improved by xylanase, xylanase + β-glucanase, mannanase and protease dietary supplementation (P < 0.05). Crude protein AiD was only improved by protease dietary supplementation (P < 0.001). Dietary supplementation with xylanase alone improved ADG of maize- (P < 0.05) and co-product- (P < 0.05) based diets but had no effect on the G:F of grow-finisher pigs. Dietary supplementation with xylanase + β-glucanase had no effect on ADG, ADFI and G:F. Protease supplementation tended to improve the ADG of grow-finisher pigs fed co-product-based diets (P = 0.08) but had no effect on G:F. Dietary supplementation with multi-enzyme complexes improved the ADG (P < 0.05) and G:F (P < 0.01) of maize-, wheat-, barley- and co-product-based diets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with all enzyme types improved nutrient digestibility depending on ingredient content, while mannanase and multi-enzyme complex supplementation most consistently improved growth and feed efficiency.