• The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep

      McRae, Kathryn M.; Stear, Michael J.; Good, Barbara; Keane, Orla M; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Allan and Grace Kay Overseas Scholarship; European Union; BBSRC Animal Health Research Club; BB/l004070/1 (Wiley, 2015-10-20)
      Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo-dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition there is growing consumer demand for food products from animals not subjected to chemical treatment. Future mechanisms of nematode control must rely on alternative, sustainable strategies such as vaccination or selective breeding of resistant animals. Such strategies take advantage of the host's natural immune response to nematodes. The ability to resist gastrointestinal nematode infection is considered to be dependent on the development of a protective acquired immune response; although the precise immune mechanisms involved in initiating this process remain to be fully elucidated. In this paper current knowledge on the innate and acquired host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep and the development of immunity is reviewed.
    • Response to Teladorsagia circumcincta infection in Scottish Blackface lambs with divergent phenotypes for nematode resistance

      McRae, Kathryn M.; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P; Glynn, Assumpta; O'Connell, Mary J.; Keane, Orla M; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Allan and Grace Kay Overseas Scholarship (Elsevier, 2014-10-24)
      The objective of this study was to identify Scottish Blackface lambs that were at the extremes of the spectrum of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes and characterise their response to an experimental nematode challenge. Lambs (n = 90) were monitored for faecal egg count (FEC) (2 samples from each of 2 independent natural infections). The most resistant (n = 10) and susceptible (n = 10) individuals were selected and challenged with 30,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta larvae (L3) at 9 months of age. Response to infection was monitored by measuring FEC, plasma pepsinogen, serum antibodies against nematode larval antigens and haematology profile, until necropsy at 71 days post infection. Worm burden, worm fecundity and the level of anti-nematode antibodies in abomasal mucosa were determined at necropsy. FEC was consistently higher in susceptible animals (P < 0.05), validating the selection method. Worm fecundity was significantly reduced in resistant animals (P = 0.03). There was also a significant correlation (r = 0.88; P < 0.001) between the number of adult worms and FEC at slaughter. There was no effect of phenotype (resistance/susceptibility) on plasma pepsinogen or on haematology profile. Phenotype had a significant effect on the level of anti-nematode IgA antibodies in serum (P < 0.01), reflecting a higher peak in resistant animals at day 7 post infection. It is concluded that significant variation in the response to gastrointestinal nematode challenge exists within the Scottish Blackface population with resistant animals displaying significantly lower FEC, lower worm fecundity and higher concentration of anti-nematode IgA antibodies in serum.