• CowPI: A Rumen Microbiome Focussed Version of the PICRUSt Functional Inference Software

      Wilkinson, Toby J.; Huws, Sharon A.; Edwards, Joan E.; Kingston-Smith, Alison H.; Siu-Ting, Karen; Hughes, Martin; Rubino, Francesco; Friedersdorff, Maximillian; Creevey, Christopher J.; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-05-25)
      Metataxonomic 16S rDNA based studies are a commonplace and useful tool in the research of the microbiome, but they do not provide the full investigative power of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics for revealing the functional potential of microbial communities. However, the use of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic technologies is hindered by high costs and skills barrier necessary to generate and interpret the data. To address this, a tool for Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) was developed for inferring the functional potential of an observed microbiome profile, based on 16S data. This allows functional inferences to be made from metataxonomic 16S rDNA studies with little extra work or cost, but its accuracy relies on the availability of completely sequenced genomes of representative organisms from the community being investigated. The rumen microbiome is an example of a community traditionally underrepresented in genome and sequence databases, but recent efforts by projects such as the Global Rumen Census and Hungate 1000 have resulted in a wide sampling of 16S rDNA profiles and almost 500 fully sequenced microbial genomes from this environment. Using this information, we have developed “CowPI,” a focused version of the PICRUSt tool provided for use by the wider scientific community in the study of the rumen microbiome. We evaluated the accuracy of CowPI and PICRUSt using two 16S datasets from the rumen microbiome: one generated from rDNA and the other from rRNA where corresponding metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data was also available. We show that the functional profiles predicted by CowPI better match estimates for both the meta-genomic and transcriptomic datasets than PICRUSt, and capture the higher degree of genetic variation and larger pangenomes of rumen organisms. Nonetheless, whilst being closer in terms of predictive power for the rumen microbiome, there were differences when compared to both the metagenomic and metatranscriptome data and so we recommend, where possible, functional inferences from 16S data should not replace metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches. The tool can be accessed at http://www.cowpi.org and is provided to the wider scientific community for use in the study of the rumen microbiome.
    • CowPI: A Rumen Microbiome Focussed Version of the PICRUSt Functional Inference Software

      Wilkinson, Toby J.; Huws, Sharon A.; Edwards, Joan E.; Kingston-Smith, Alison H.; Siu-Ting, Karen; Hughes, Martin; Rubino, Francesco; Friedersdorff, Maximillian; Creevey, Christopher J.; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-05-25)
      Metataxonomic 16S rDNA based studies are a commonplace and useful tool in the research of the microbiome, but they do not provide the full investigative power of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics for revealing the functional potential of microbial communities. However, the use of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic technologies is hindered by high costs and skills barrier necessary to generate and interpret the data. To address this, a tool for Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) was developed for inferring the functional potential of an observed microbiome profile, based on 16S data. This allows functional inferences to be made from metataxonomic 16S rDNA studies with little extra work or cost, but its accuracy relies on the availability of completely sequenced genomes of representative organisms from the community being investigated. The rumen microbiome is an example of a community traditionally underrepresented in genome and sequence databases, but recent efforts by projects such as the Global Rumen Census and Hungate 1000 have resulted in a wide sampling of 16S rDNA profiles and almost 500 fully sequenced microbial genomes from this environment. Using this information, we have developed “CowPI,” a focused version of the PICRUSt tool provided for use by the wider scientific community in the study of the rumen microbiome. We evaluated the accuracy of CowPI and PICRUSt using two 16S datasets from the rumen microbiome: one generated from rDNA and the other from rRNA where corresponding metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data was also available. We show that the functional profiles predicted by CowPI better match estimates for both the meta-genomic and transcriptomic datasets than PICRUSt, and capture the higher degree of genetic variation and larger pangenomes of rumen organisms. Nonetheless, whilst being closer in terms of predictive power for the rumen microbiome, there were differences when compared to both the metagenomic and metatranscriptome data and so we recommend, where possible, functional inferences from 16S data should not replace metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches. The tool can be accessed at http://www.cowpi.org and is provided to the wider scientific community for use in the study of the rumen microbiome.
    • Effect of Early Calf-Hood Nutrition on the Transcriptional Regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular axis in Holstein-Friesian Bull Calves

      English, A. M.; Byrne, C. J.; Cormican, Paul; Waters, Sinead M.; Fair, S.; Kenny, David A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Irish Research Council; 11/S/116; GOIPG/2013/1391 (Springer Nature, 2018-11-08)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early calf-hood nutrition on the transcriptomic profile of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and testes in Holstein-Friesian bulls. Holstein-Friesian bull calves with a mean (±S.D.) age and bodyweight of 19 (±8.2) days and 47.5 (±5.3) kg, respectively, were offered a high (n = 10) or low (n = 10) plane of nutrition in order to achieve an overall growth rate of 1.2 and 0.5 kg/day. At 126 (±3) days of age, calves were euthanized, hypothalamus (arcuate region), anterior pituitary and testicular parenchyma samples were harvested and RNAseq analysis was performed. There were 0, 49 and 1,346 genes differentially expressed in the arcuate nucleus, anterior pituitary and testicular tissue of bull calves on the low relative to the high plane of nutrition, respectively (P < 0.05; False Discovery Rate <0.05). Cell cycle processes in the anterior pituitary were down regulated in the low relative to the high plane of nutrition; there was no differential expression of genes related to reproductive processes. Gene expression involved in cholesterol and androgen biosynthesis in the testes were down regulated in animals on the low plane of nutrition. This study provides insight into the effect of early life plane of nutrition on the regulation of the HPT axis.
    • Effect of Early Calf-Hood Nutrition on the Transcriptional Regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular axis in Holstein-Friesian Bull Calves

      English, A. M.; Byrne, C. J.; Cormican, P; Waters, S. M.; Fair, S.; Kenny, D. A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Irish Research Council; 11/S/116; GOIPG/2013/1391 (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-11-08)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early calf-hood nutrition on the transcriptomic profile of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and testes in Holstein-Friesian bulls. Holstein-Friesian bull calves with a mean (±S.D.) age and bodyweight of 19 (±8.2) days and 47.5 (±5.3) kg, respectively, were offered a high (n = 10) or low (n = 10) plane of nutrition in order to achieve an overall growth rate of 1.2 and 0.5 kg/day. At 126 (±3) days of age, calves were euthanized, hypothalamus (arcuate region), anterior pituitary and testicular parenchyma samples were harvested and RNAseq analysis was performed. There were 0, 49 and 1,346 genes differentially expressed in the arcuate nucleus, anterior pituitary and testicular tissue of bull calves on the low relative to the high plane of nutrition, respectively (P < 0.05; False Discovery Rate <0.05). Cell cycle processes in the anterior pituitary were down regulated in the low relative to the high plane of nutrition; there was no differential expression of genes related to reproductive processes. Gene expression involved in cholesterol and androgen biosynthesis in the testes were down regulated in animals on the low plane of nutrition. This study provides insight into the effect of early life plane of nutrition on the regulation of the HPT axis.
    • Effect of early calf-hood nutrition on the transcriptomic profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue in Holstein-Friesian bulls

      English, Anne-Marie; Waters, Sinead M.; Cormican, Paul; Byrne, Colin J; Fair, Seán; Kenny, David A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Irish Research Council; 11/S/116; GOIPG/2013/1391 (Biomed Central, 2018-04-24)
      Background Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ and is thought to play a central role in the metabolic control of reproductive function in cattle. Plane of nutrition during early life has been shown to influence the timing of puberty in both male and female cattle, though the exact biological mechanisms involved are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early calf-hood nutrition on the transcriptomic profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue in Holstein-Friesian bulls to identify possible downstream effects on reproductive physiology. Results Holstein-Friesian bull calves with a mean (±S.D.) age and bodyweight of 19 (±8.2) days and 47.5 (±5.3) kg, respectively, were assigned to either a high (n = 10) or low (n = 10) plane of nutrition. Calves were fed in order to achieve an overall growth rate of 1.08 and 0.57 kg/day for the high and low plane of nutrition treatments, respectively. At 126 days of age, the bulls were euthanized, subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were harvested and RNAseq analysis was performed. There were 674 genes differentially expressed in adipose tissue of calves on the low compared with the high plane of nutrition (P < 0.05; FDR < 0.05; fold change > 2.0). High plane of nutrition positively altered the expression of genes across an array of putative biological processes but the most dominant cellular processes affected were cellular energy production and branched chain amino acid degradation. A high plane of nutrition caused upregulation of genes such as leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ), which are known to directly affect reproductive function. Conclusions These results provide an insight into the effect of augmenting the plane of nutrition of Holstein-Friesian bull calves in the prepubertal period on the transcriptome of adipose tissue.
    • Gene Fusions Derived by Transcriptional Readthrough are Driven by Segmental Duplication in Human.

      McCartney, Ann M; Hyland, Edel M; Cormican, Paul; Moran, Raymond J; Webb, Andrew E; Lee, Kate D; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Creevey, Christopher J; Aspden, Julie L; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2019-08-10)
      Gene fusion occurs when two or more individual genes with independent open reading frames becoming juxtaposed under the same open reading frame creating a new fused gene. A small number of gene fusions described in detail have been associated with novel functions, for example, the hominid-specific PIPSL gene, TNFSF12, and the TWE-PRIL gene family. We use Sequence Similarity Networks and species level comparisons of great ape genomes to identify 45 new genes that have emerged by transcriptional readthrough, that is, transcription-derived gene fusion. For 35 of these putative gene fusions, we have been able to assess available RNAseq data to determine whether there are reads that map to each breakpoint. A total of 29 of the putative gene fusions had annotated transcripts (9/29 of which are human-specific). We carried out RT-qPCR in a range of human tissues (placenta, lung, liver, brain, and testes) and found that 23 of the putative gene fusion events were expressed in at least one tissue. Examining the available ribosome foot-printing data, we find evidence for translation of three of the fused genes in human. Finally, we find enrichment for transcription-derived gene fusions in regions of known segmental duplication in human. Together, our results implicate chromosomal structural variation brought about by segmental duplication with the emergence of novel transcripts and translated protein products.