• The Effect of Dietary Oil Type and Energy Intake in Lactating Sows on the Fatty Acid Profile of Colostrum and Milk, and Piglet Growth to Weaning

      Lavery, Anna; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Miller, Helen M.; Magowan, Elizabeth; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; University of Leeds (MDPI AG, 2019-12-06)
      This study investigated the effect of salmon oil in lactating sow diets and offering these diets in a phased dietary regimen to increase the energy density of the diet in late lactation. Sow and piglet productivity to weaning, the fatty acid profile of milk, piglet blood and tissues at weaning were the main parameters measured. Multiparous sows (n = 100) (Landrace × Large White) were offered dietary treatments from day 105 of gestation until weaning. Dietary treatments (2 × 2 factorial) included oil type (soya or salmon oil) and dietary regimen (Flat 14.5 MJ/kg DE diet offered until weaning or Phased 14.5 MJ/kg DE diet offered to day 14 of lactation then a second diet containing 15.5 MJ/kg DE offered from day 15 until weaning). Salmon oil inclusion increased the total proportion of n-3 fatty acids in colostrum (p < 0.001), milk (p < 0.001), piglet plasma (p < 0.01), adipose (p < 0.001), liver (p < 0.001) and muscle (p < 0.001). Increasing sow dietary energy level in late lactation increased the total n-3 fatty acids in milk (p < 0.001), piglet adipose (p < 0.01) and piglet muscle (p < 0.05). However, piglet growth to weaning did not improve.
    • Gene Fusions Derived by Transcriptional Readthrough are Driven by Segmental Duplication in Human.

      McCartney, Ann M; Hyland, Edel M; Cormican, Paul; Moran, Raymond J; Webb, Andrew E; Lee, Kate D; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Creevey, Christopher J; Aspden, Julie L; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2019-08-10)
      Gene fusion occurs when two or more individual genes with independent open reading frames becoming juxtaposed under the same open reading frame creating a new fused gene. A small number of gene fusions described in detail have been associated with novel functions, for example, the hominid-specific PIPSL gene, TNFSF12, and the TWE-PRIL gene family. We use Sequence Similarity Networks and species level comparisons of great ape genomes to identify 45 new genes that have emerged by transcriptional readthrough, that is, transcription-derived gene fusion. For 35 of these putative gene fusions, we have been able to assess available RNAseq data to determine whether there are reads that map to each breakpoint. A total of 29 of the putative gene fusions had annotated transcripts (9/29 of which are human-specific). We carried out RT-qPCR in a range of human tissues (placenta, lung, liver, brain, and testes) and found that 23 of the putative gene fusion events were expressed in at least one tissue. Examining the available ribosome foot-printing data, we find evidence for translation of three of the fused genes in human. Finally, we find enrichment for transcription-derived gene fusions in regions of known segmental duplication in human. Together, our results implicate chromosomal structural variation brought about by segmental duplication with the emergence of novel transcripts and translated protein products.