• Does iodine supplementation of the prepartum dairy cow diet affect serum immunoglobulin G concentration, iodine, and health status of the calf?

      Conneely, Muireann; Berry, Donagh; Sayers, Riona; Murphy, Jessica P.; Doherty, Michael L.; Lorenz, Ingrid; Kennedy, Emer (Elsevier for American Dairy Science Association, 2014-08)
      Absorption of adequate IgG from colostrum is critical to provide the newborn calf with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. Excessive iodine supplementation of the prepartum ewe reduces IgG absorption of her offspring; it is possible that excessive iodine supplementation of the prepartum dairy cow may similarly impair the ability of the calf to acquire immunological protection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the iodine status, health status, and ability of calves to absorb IgG from colostrum were affected by prepartum iodine supplementation strategies of their dams. Dairy cows (n = 127) received one of the following levels of iodine supplementation precalving: 15 mg of iodine/kg of dietary dry matter (DM) (HI); no additional iodine supplementation (MI); 5 mg/kg of dietary DM (SI); and 15 mg of iodine/kg of DM for the first 3.5 wk of the precalving period and no additional supplementation for the second 3.5 wk (HMI). Calves were assigned to 1 of 6 experimental treatments, based on the prepartum iodine supplementation treatment of their dam and the precalving treatment group of the cows from which the colostrum fed was obtained: (1) HI_HI: born to HI dams, fed HI colostrum (i.e., colostrum produced by cows in the HI group); (2) MI_MI: born to MI dams, fed MI colostrum; (3) SI_SI: born to SI dams, fed SI colostrum; (4) HI_MI: born to HI dams, fed MI colostrum; (5) MI_HI: born to MI dams, fed HI colostrum; and (6) HMI_HMI: born to HMI dams, fed HMI colostrum. Concentration of calf serum IgG and plasma inorganic iodine (PII) was measured at 0 and 24 h of age. Apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice weekly and all episodes of disease were recorded. Cow experimental treatment group affected calf PII at 0 h of age; the PII of calves born to HI dams (987.2 µg/L) was greater than that of calves born to MI dams (510.1 µg/L), SI (585.2 µg/L), and HMI dams (692.9 µg/L). Calf experimental treatment group affected calf PII at 24 h of age; the PII of HI_HI (1,259.2 µg/L) and HI_MI (1,177.8 µg/L) calves was greater than MI_MI (240.7 µg/L), SI_SI (302.2 µg/L), HMI_HMI (320.7 µg/L), and MI_HI (216.3 µg/L) calves. No effect of experimental treatment was observed on the concentration of IgG measured in calf serum at 24 h of age, or on apparent efficiency of absorption. Experimental treatment had no effect on the likelihood of a calf being assigned a worse nasal, eye and ear, cough, or fecal score within the study period, nor did it affect the probability of a calf receiving treatment for a disease a greater number of times. Prepartum iodine supplementation of cows at 15mg/kg of DM increased the iodine levels in their calves at birth and 24 h of age, but did not affect their ability to absorb IgG from colostrum. Supplementation with iodine above the minimum requirements established by the National Research Council was unnecessary to ensure appropriate iodine levels in calves at birth.
    • Effect of feeding colostrum at different volumes and subsequent number of transition milk feeds on the serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health status of dairy calves

      Conneely, Muireann; Berry, Donagh; Murphy, Jessica P.; Lorenz, Ingrid; Doherty, Michael L.; Kennedy, Emer (Elsevier for American Dairy Science Association, 2014-09)
      Transfer of sufficient IgG to the newborn calf via colostrum is vital to provide it with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. The objectives of the present study were to compare serum IgG concentration and health parameters of calves (1) fed different volumes of colostrum [7, 8.5, or 10% of body weight (BW)] within 2 h of birth and (2) given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk (i.e., milkings 2 to 6 postcalving). Ninety-nine dairy calves were fed 7, 8.5, or 10% of BW in colostrum within 2 h of birth and given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk. The concentration of IgG in the serum of calves was measured at 24, 48, 72, and 642 h of age by an ELISA. The apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice per week and all episodes of disease were recorded. The effect of experimental treatment on calf serum IgG concentration differed by the age of the calf. Calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum had a greater mean serum IgG concentration than calves fed 7 or 10% of BW at 24, 48, and 72 h of age. At 642 h of age, serum IgG concentrations of calves fed 8.5% of BW (24.2 g/L) and calves fed 10% of BW (21.6 g/L) did not differ, although the serum IgG concentration of calves fed 8.5% of BW was still greater than that of calves fed 7% of BW (20.7 g/L). No difference in serum IgG concentration existed between calves fed 7% of BW and those fed 10% of BW at any age. No significant effect of number of subsequent feedings of transition milk on calf serum IgG concentration was detected. The apparent efficiency of absorption of calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum (38%) was greater than calves fed 7% of BW in colostrum (26%) and tended to be greater than in calves fed 10% of BW (29%). Calves fed further feedings of transition milk after the initial feeding of colostrum had a lower odds (0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.93) of being assigned a worse eye/ear score (i.e., a more copious ocular discharge or pronounced ear droop) and a lower odds (0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.32 to 0.79) of being assigned a worse nasal score (i.e., a more copious and purulent nasal discharge) during the study period relative to calves that received no further feedings of transition milk. In conclusion, calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum within 2 h of birth achieved a greater concentration of IgG in serum in the first 3 d of life than calves fed either 7 or 10% of BW. Feeding calves transition milk subsequently reduced their odds of being assigned a worse eye/ear and nasal score.
    • Feeding Techniques To Increase Calf Growth In The First Two Months Of Life

      Fallon, Richard J.; Morrison, Steven; Dawson, L.; Twigge, J. (Teagasc, 2008-01-01)
      Data from Cornell University and the University of Illinois in the USA suggested that average daily liveweight gains of 900 to 1000 g/calf/day could be achieved from birth to weaning provided the calf milk replacer (CMR) is formulated to meet the calf’s amino acid requirements for such a rate of gain. Their findings suggested a daily milk replacer DM allowance of 1250 to 1500 g/d with a crude protein content of 26 to 30%. A series of studies were undertaken, at ARINI with home born dairy calves and at Grange Beef Research Centre with purchased dairy calves, to determine the effect of increasing the daily milk replacer DM allowance and or increasing the crude protein content of the CMR on calf performance.The main outcomes of these studies were  There was no growth or intake response in any of the studies to increasing the crude protein content of the CMP from 23% to 28%.  Calf growth rates responded to increasing the dailymilk replacer allowance from 600 to 1200 g/day for both home bred and purchased calves. However, the effect was not significant post-weaning in any of the studies.  In all of the studies (for both home reared and purchased calves) feeding a high level of CMRdecreased concentrate DM intake. However, the calves concentrate intakes were similar post-weaning.  The home bred calves with free access to the milk replacer feeders failed to consume their 1200 g/day allowance. Calves offered 600 or 1200 g of CMR/day had average consumption of 554 and 944 g/d, respectively, in the milk feeding period.  Feeding a high (1200 g/d) compared to a low level (600 g/d) CMRdiet for the first 56 days had no significant effect on carcass weight or carcass characteristics when purchased male calves were slaughtered off an ad libitum concentrate diet after 388 days. The final carcass weights were 231 and 240 kg for the respective 600 and 1200 g/d CMR.  Reducing the fat content of the CMRfrom 18% to 12% did not have any effect on concentrate intake or liveweight gain.