• Extended lactations in a seasonal-calving pastoral system of production to modulate the effects of reproductive failure

      Butler, Stephen T.; Shalloo, Laurence; Murphy, J.J. (American Dairy Science Association and Elsevier Inc., 2010-03)
      This study was conducted to determine whether extending the calving interval (CI) to 24 mo would be an alternative to culling and replacing cows that had failed to become pregnant. Forty six non-pregnant lactating cows were assembled in Nov 2004 and assigned to receive either 3 kg (low) or 6 kg (high) of concentrate supplement and a basal diet of grass silage and maize silage over the winter period (13 wk). Cows returned to pasture in late March, and received 1 kg concentrate/d until dry-off (milk yield <5 kg/d). Cumulative milk production was calculated from calving to the end of Nov 2004 (12 mo CI), and from the start of Dec 2004 until dry off in 2005 (extended lactation part of 24 mo CI). High winter feeding resulted in greater milk production over the winter confinement (20.0 ± 0.3 vs. 17.8 ± 0.3 kg/d), and had a carryover effect during the remainder of the 24 mo CI period (5,177 vs. 4,686 kg; SEM = 173 kg). At the end of the study, cows were ranked on cumulative milk solids, and separated into 3 groups (R1, R2, and R3). During the 24 mo CI, milk yields were 7,287, 6,267 and 5,273 kg (SEM = 308 kg) in Year 1, and 5,738, 4,836, and 4,266 (SEM = 241 kg) in Year 2 for R1, R2, and R3, respectively. Eighty five percent of the cows became pregnant during the breeding season of yr 2, with a conception rate to first service of 52%. An economic analysis of different Ranks with a 12 mo CI, a 24 mo CI, and an annualized herd effect, which compared an efficient spring calving system with a system that had 30% recycled cows in R1 and 10% recycled cows in R3 was carried out. Farm profit was reduced by 60% and 65% at a milk price of 22.3 c/L with the corresponding values of 17% and 30% for a milk price of 30 c/L, respectively, when R1 and R3 systems were compared with an efficient spring milk (12 mo CI) production system. Within a spring system where 30% and 10% of R1 and R3 animals are subjected to extended lactations, the profit difference was substantially reduced compared to an efficient spring system, The results indicated that lactations with a 24 mo CI may be a viable alternative to culling non-pregnant cows, and economically more suited to higher producing cows.
    • Grazing Cow Behavior’s Association with Mild and Moderate Lameness

      O’Leary, Niall W.; Byrne, Daire. T.; Garcia, Pauline; Werner, Jessica; Cabedoche, Morgan; Shalloo, Laurence; Science Foundation Ireland; Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine; 13/IA/1977; 16/RC/3835 (MDPI AG, 2020-04-11)
      Accelerometer-based mobility scoring has focused on cow behaviors such as lying and walking. Accuracy levels as high as 91% have been previously reported. However, there has been limited replication of results. Here, measures previously identified as indicative of mobility, such as lying bouts and walking time, were examined. On a research farm and a commercial farm, 63 grazing cows’ behavior was monitored in four trials (16, 16, 16, and 15 cows) using leg-worn accelerometers. Seventeen good mobility (score 0), 23 imperfect mobility (score 1), and 22 mildly impaired mobility (score 2) cows were monitored. Only modest associations with activity, standing, and lying events were found. Thus, behavior monitoring appears to be insufficient to discern mildly and moderately impaired mobility of grazing cows.
    • Grazing of dairy cows on pasture versus indoor feeding on total mixed ration: Effects on low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheese yield and quality characteristics in mid and late lactation

      Gulati, Arunima; Galvin, Norann; Hennessy, Deirdre; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Donovan, Michael; McManus, Jennifer J.; Fenelon, Mark; Guinee, Timothy P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Dairy Levy Research Trust; et al. (Elsevier for American Dairy Science Association, 2018-08-16)
      This study investigated the effects of 3 dairy cow feeding systems on the composition, yield, and biochemical and physical properties of low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheese in mid (ML; May–June) and late (LL; October–November) lactation. Sixty spring-calving cows were assigned to 3 herds, each consisting of 20 cows, and balanced on parity, calving date, and pre-experimental milk yield and milk solids yield. Each herd was allocated to 1 of the following feeding systems: grazing on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pasture (GRO), grazing on perennial ryegrass and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pasture (GRC), or housed indoors and offered total mixed ration (TMR). Mozzarella cheese was manufactured on 3 separate occasions in ML and 4 in LL in 2016. Feeding system had significant effects on milk composition, cheese yield, the elemental composition of cheese, cheese color (green to red and blue to yellow color coordinates), the extent of flow on heating, and the fluidity of the melted cheese. Compared with TMR milk, GRO and GRC milks had higher concentrations of protein and casein and lower concentrations of I, Cu, and Se, higher cheese-yielding capacity, and produced cheese with lower concentrations of the trace elements I, Cu, and Se and higher yellowness value. Cheese from GRO milk had higher heat-induced flow and fluidity than cheese from TMR milk. These effects were observed over the entire lactation period (ML + LL), but varied somewhat in ML and LL. Feeding system had little, or no, effect on gross composition of the cheese, the proportions of milk protein or fat lost to cheese whey, the texture of the unheated cheese, or the energy required to extend the molten cheese. The differences in color and melt characteristics of cheeses obtained from milks with the different feeding systems may provide a basis for creating points of differentiation suited to different markets.
    • Integration of high and low field 1H NMR to analyse the effects of bovine dietary regime on milk metabolomics and protein-bound moisture characterisation of the resulting mozzarella cheeses during ripening

      Boiani, Mattia; Sundekilde, Ulrik; Bateman, Lorraine M.; McCarthy, Daniel G.; Maguire, Anita R.; Gulati, Arunima; Guinee, Timothy P.; Fenelon, Mark; Hennessy, Deirdre; Fitzgerald, Richard J.; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-10-11)
      The influence of dairy cow feeding regime was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Two different NMR analytical systems were deployed: high field 1H NMR to investigate the influence on milk metabolomics and low field NMR to characterise proton relaxation linked to changes in the state of mozzarella cheese moisture during ripening. The metabolomics results showed that grass-based feeding increased the concentration of a biological marker that signifies near-organic milk production conditions. On the other hand, the investigation of cheese moisture distribution showed that grass-based diets reached final moisture partitioning in a shorter time, which implied the formation of a more compact protein structure in the cheese matrix. These results indicate that pasture-based dairying may be differentiated in terms of the provenance of milk produced along with the accrual of additional benefits during ripening of the resulting mozzarella cheeses.
    • A national methodology to quantify the diet of grazing dairy cows

      OBrien, Donal; Moran, Brian; Shalloo, Laurence (Elsevier, 2018-07-04)
      The unique rumen of dairy cows allows them to digest fibrous forages and feedstuffs. Surprisingly, to date few attempts have been made to develop national methods to gain an understanding on the make-up of a dairy cow's diet, despite the importance of milk production. Consumer interest is growing in purchasing milk based on the composition of the cows' diet and the time they spend grazing. The goal of this research was to develop such a methodology using the national farm survey of Ireland as a data source. The analysis was completed for a 3-yr period from 2013 to 2015 on a nationally representative sample of 275 to 318 dairy farms. Trained auditors carried out economic surveys on farms 3 to 4 times per annum. The auditors collected important additional information necessary to estimate the diet of cows including the length of the grazing season, monthly concentrate feeding, type of forage(s) conserved, and milk production. Annual cow intakes were calculated to meet net energy requirements for production, maintenance, activity, pregnancy, growth, and live weight change using survey data and published literature. Our analysis showed that the average annual cow feed intake on a fresh matter basis ranged from 22.7 t in 2013 to 24.8 t in 2015 and from 4.8 to 5 t on a dry matter basis for the same period. Forage, particularly pasture, was the largest component of the Irish cow diet, typically accounting for 96% of the diet on a fresh matter basis and 82% of dry matter intake over the 3 yr. Within the cows' forage diet, grazed pasture was the dominant component and on average contributed 74 to 77% to the average annual cow fresh matter diet over the period. The proportion of pasture in the annual cow diet as fed was also identified as a good indicator of the time cows spend grazing (e.g., coefficient of determination = 0.85). Monthly, forage was typically the main component of the cow diet, but the average contribution of concentrate was substantial for the early spring months of January and February (30 to 35% of dry matter intake). Grazed pasture was the dominant source of forage from March to October and usually contributed 95 to 97% of the diet as fed in the summer period. Overall, the national farm survey from 2013 to 2015 shows that Irish dairy farms are very reliant on forage, particularly pasture, regardless of whether it is reported on a dry matter basis or as fed. There is potential to replicate this methodology in any regions or nations where representative farm surveys are conducted.
    • Outdoor grazing of dairy cows on pasture versus indoor feeding on total mixed ration: Effects on gross composition and mineral content of milk during lactation

      Gulati, Arunima; Galvin, Norann; Lewis, Eva; Hennessy, Deirdre; O'Donovan, Michael; McManus, Jennifer J.; Fenelon, Mark; Guinee, Timothy P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Dairy Levy Trust Co-Operative Society Limited; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-08-15)
      The influence of feeding system and lactation period on the gross composition, macroelements (Ca, P, Mg, and Na), and trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mo, Mn, Se, and Co) of bovine milk was investigated. The feeding systems included outdoor grazing on perennial ryegrass pasture (GRO), outdoor grazing on perennial ryegrass and white clover pasture (GRC), and indoors offered total mixed ration (TMR). Sixty spring-calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 3 herds, each consisting of 20 cows, and balanced with respect to parity, calving date, and pre-experimental milk yield and milk solids yield. The herds were allocated to 1 of the 3 feeding systems from February to November. Milk samples were collected on 10 occasions over the period June 17 to November 26, at 2 or 3 weekly intervals, when cows were on average 119 to 281 d in lactation (DIL). The total lactation period was arbitrarily sub-divided into 2 lactation periods based on DIL, namely mid lactation, June 17 to September 9 when cows were 119 to 203 DIL; and late lactation, September 22 to November 26 when cows were 216 to 281 DIL. With the exception of Mg, Na, Fe, Mo, and Co, all other variables were affected by feeding system. The GRO milk had the highest mean concentrations of total solids, total protein, casein, Ca, and P. The TMR milk had the highest concentrations of lactose, Cu, and Se, and lowest level of total protein. The GRC milk had levels of lactose, Zn, and Cu similar to those of GRO milk, and concentrations of TS, Ca, and P similar to those of TMR milk. Lactation period affected all variables, apart from the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Se. On average, the proportion (%) of total Ca, P, Zn, Mn, or Se that sedimented with the casein on high-speed ultracentrifugation at 100,000 × g was ≥60%, whereas that of Na, Mg, or Mo was ≤45% total. The results demonstrate how the gross composition and elemental composition of milk can be affected by different feeding systems.
    • Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome

      O’Callaghan, Tom; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Serra-Cayuela, Arnau; Dong, Edison; Mandal, Rupasri; Hennessy, Deirdre; McAuliffe, Stephen; Dillon, Pat; Wishart, David; Stanton, Catherine; et al. (MDPI AG, 2018-04-06)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pasture feeding systems—perennial ryegrass (GRS) and perennial ryegrass and white clover (CLV)—and an indoor total mixed ration (TMR) system on the (a) rumen microbiome; (b) rumen fluid and milk metabolome; and (c) to assess the potential to distinguish milk from different feeding systems by their respective metabolomes. Rumen fluid was collected from nine rumen cannulated cows under the different feeding systems in early, mid and late lactation, and raw milk samples were collected from ten non-cannulated cows in mid-lactation from each of the feeding systems. The microbiota present in rumen liquid and solid portions were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while 1H-NMR untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on rumen fluid and raw milk samples. The rumen microbiota composition was not found to be significantly altered by any feeding system in this study, likely as a result of a shortened adaptation period (two weeks’ exposure time). In contrast, feeding system had a significant effect on both the rumen and milk metabolome. Increased concentrations of volatile fatty acids including acetic acid, an important source of energy for the cow, were detected in the rumen of TMR and CLV-fed cows. Pasture feeding resulted in significantly higher concentrations of isoacids in the rumen. The ruminal fluids of both CLV and GRS-fed cows were found to have increased concentrations of p-cresol, a product of microbiome metabolism. CLV feeding resulted in increased rumen concentrations of formate, a substrate compound for methanogenesis. The TMR feeding resulted in significantly higher rumen choline content, which contributes to animal health and milk production, and succinate, a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Milk and rumen-fluids were shown to have varying levels of dimethyl sulfone in each feeding system, which was found to be an important compound for distinguishing between the diets. CLV feeding resulted in increased concentrations of milk urea. Milk from pasture-based feeding systems was shown to have significantly higher concentrations of hippuric acid, a potential biomarker of pasture-derived milk. This study has demonstrated that 1H-NMR metabolomics coupled with multivariate analysis is capable of distinguishing both rumen-fluid and milk derived from cows on different feeding systems, specifically between indoor TMR and pasture-based diets used in this study.
    • Performance of lactating suckler cows of diverse genetic merit and genotype under a seasonal pasture-based system

      McCabe, S.; McHugh, Noirin; O'Connell, N. E.; Prendiville, Robert (Teagasc, 2021-12-21)
      The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic merit of the national Irish maternal index and genotype (i.e. beef vs. beef × dairy [BDX]) of beef cows and subsequent performance of their progeny. With the exception that high genetic merit cows produced 0.57 kg more milk and tended to have 0.04 of a lower body condition score (BCS), no significant differences were observed between cows of diverse genetic merit. Differences between contrasting cow genotype were apparent. Beef cows were 50 kg heavier and had a BCS 0.27 greater than BDX cows. The BDX cows produced 1.67 kg more milk and had a greater 24-d submission rate than beef cows. Calves generated from BDX cows were 19 kg heavier at weaning and were worth €51 more than progeny generated from beef cows. Beef cow progeny, however, had 0.77 of a greater conformation score at slaughter than BDX. While differences were observed across cows of different replacement strategies, results from the current study showed that genetic selection for national maternal index had no effect on the overall performance of suckler cows in a pasture-based spring-calving system.
    • Suckler Bulls Slaughtered at 15 Months of Age: Effect of Different Production Systems on the Fatty Acid Profile and Selected Quality Characteristics of Longissimus Thoracis

      Moran, Lara; Wilson, Shannon S.; McElhinney, Cormac K.; Monahan, Frank J.; McGee, Mark; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; O'Riordan, Edward G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Moloney, Aidan; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; et al. (MDPI AG, 2019-07-18)
      The objective was to compare the quality of beef from bulls reared in typical Irish indoor systems or in novel grass-based systems. Bulls were assigned to one of the following systems: (a) grass silage plus barley-based concentrate ad libitum (CON); (b) grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg of concentrate (SC); (c) grazed grass without supplementation (G0); (d) grazed grass plus 0.5 kg of the dietary dry matter intake as concentrate (GC) for (100 days) until slaughter (14.99 months). Carcass characteristics and pH decline were recorded. Longissimus thoracis was collected for analytical and sensory analysis. Lower carcass weight, conformation and fatness scores were found for grazing compared to CON and SC groups. CON bulls had highest intramuscular fat and lighter meat colour compared with grazing bulls. The SC meat (14 days aged) was rated higher for tenderness, texture, flavour and acceptability compared with grazing groups. CON saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentration was highest, conversely, omega-3 FA concentration was higher for GC compared with CON, while no differences were found in polyunsaturated FA. In conclusion, while market fatness specification was not reached by grazed grass treatments, beef eating quality was not detrimentally affected and nutritional quality was improved.