• An observational study using blood gas analysis to assess neonatal calf diarrhea and subsequent recovery with a European Commission-compliant oral electrolyte solution

      Sayers, Riona; Kennedy, Aideen E.; Krump, Lea; Sayers, Gearoid; Kennedy, Emer; Epsilion Ltd.; IV20151256 (American Dairy Science Association, 2016-04-06)
      An observational study was conducted on dairy calves (51 healthy, 31 with neonatal diarrhea) during outbreaks of diarrhea on 4 dairy farms. Clinical assessment scores (CAS) were assigned to each healthy and diarrheic calf [from 0 (healthy) to 4 (marked illness)]. Blood gas analysis [pH, base excess (BE), Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, glucose, total hemoglobin, standard HCO3−, strong ion difference (SID), and anion gap (AG)] was completed for each calf. Repeated measurements were taken in healthy animals, and pre- and postintervention measurements were taken for diarrheic calves. The mean CAS of diarrheic calves was 1.7, with 51, 30, 17, and 2% of calves scoring 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The mean value for blood pH, BE, AG, and SID was 7.26, −4.93 mM, 16.3 mM, and 38.59 mM, respectively. Calves were administered an oral rehydration and buffering solution (ORBS; Vitalife for Calves, Epsilion Ltd., Cork, Ireland) and reassessed. The mean CAS decreased to 0.38 (65% of calves scored 0 and 35% scored 1) at 6 to 18 h posttreatment and to 0.03 (98% of calves scored 0 and 2% scored 1) within 24 to 48 h. Significant increases in mean value for pH, BE, HCO3−, Na+, and SID, and significant decreases in AG, K+, Ca2+, and total hemoglobin were recorded posttreatment. The correlation estimates indicated that pH, HCO3−, and BE were strongly correlated with CAS, with values exceeding 0.60 in all cases. Administration of an ORBS with a high SID and bicarbonate buffer demonstrated rapid recovery from a diarrheic episode in dairy calves.
    • Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain

      Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B.; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh P.; Castaneda-Gutierrez, Euridice; Lawlor, Peadar G; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Biomed Central, 08/03/2015)
      Background Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Methods Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25–110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25–50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50–80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25–80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80–110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring. Results The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring. Conclusions Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring adipocyte focus towards accumulation of fat. Mothers who gained the most weight during gestation (EM mothers) gave birth to offspring whose subcutaneous adipose tissue, at adolescence, appeared hyperactive compared to controls. This study concluded that mothers, who gained more than the recommended weight gain in mid and late gestation, put their offspring adipose tissue at risk of dysfunction.
    • Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain

      Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B.; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh P.; Castaneda-Gutierrez, Euridice; Lawlor, Peadar G; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Biomed Central, 08/03/2015)
      Background Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Methods Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25–110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25–50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50–80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25–80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80–110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring. Results The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring. Conclusions Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring adipocyte focus towards accumulation of fat. Mothers who gained the most weight during gestation (EM mothers) gave birth to offspring whose subcutaneous adipose tissue, at adolescence, appeared hyperactive compared to controls. This study concluded that mothers, who gained more than the recommended weight gain in mid and late gestation, put their offspring adipose tissue at risk of dysfunction.
    • On farm welfare assessment of beef cattle using an environmentally-based welfare index and investigation of the human-animal relationship

      Earley, Bernadette; Mazurek, Mickael; Murray, Margaret; Prendiville, Daniel J.; European Union (Teagasc, 2009-01-01)
      On farm welfare assessment of beef cattle using an environmentally-based welfare index and investigation of the human-animal relationship. Study 1. Animal welfare index (AWI): an on-farm survey of beef suckler farms in Ireland. Study 2. Investigation and specificity of behavioural fear responses of heifers to different fear-eliciting situations involving humans.
    • An on-farm investigation of beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI)

      Mazurek, Mickael; Prendiville, Daniel J.; Crowe, Mark A; Veissier, Isabelle; Earley, Bernadette (Biomed Central, 2010-12-13)
      Background: Beef suckler farms (194 farms throughout 13 counties) were assessed once with housed cattle and once with cattle at grass using an animal welfare index (AWI). Twenty-three of the 194 farms were revisited a year later and re-evaluated using the AWI and the Tier-Gerechtheits-Index 35L/2000 (TGI35L/2000). Thirty-three indicators were collected in five categories: locomotion (5 indicators); social interactions (between animals) (7), flooring (5), environment (7) and Stockpersonship (9). Three indicators relating to the size of the farm were also collected. Improving animal welfare is an increasingly important aspect of livestock production systems predominantly due to increased consumer concern about the source of animal products. The objectives were (i) to evaluate animal welfare of Irish beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI), (ii) to examine correlations between parameters, how they influence the AWI and investigate the applicability of the parameters used, (iii) to investigate the impact of the activity of the farmer (full-time or part-time), the interest of the farmer and the number of animals on the AWI. Results: The mean AWI was 65% and ranged from 54% to 83%. The grazing period represented 16.5% of the total points of the AWI. Seventy percent of the farms were rated as "Very Good" or "Excellent". There was no difference (P > 0.05) in AWI between full-time and part-time farmers. Part-time farmers had greater (P = 0.01) "social interactions": calving (P = 0.03) and weaning (P < 0.001) scores. Full-time farmers had cleaner animals (P = 0.03) and their animals had less lameness (P = 0.01). The number of animals on-farm and the interest of the Stockperson were negatively and positively correlated (P = 0.001), respectively, with the AWI. A hierarchical classification was performed to examine how the indicators influenced the AWI. Conclusion: The AWI was easily applicable for an on-farm evaluation of welfare. The Stockpersonship was an important factor in determining the AWI (11% of the total variation) more specifically, the interest of the farmer. Part and full-time farming did not differ (P > 0.05) in AWI scores. This method could, with further development, be used in countries with both intensive and/or extensive production systems and would require substantially less resources than animal-based methods.
    • Optimal system of contract matings for use in a commercial dairy population

      McParland, Sinead; Kearney, K. F.; Lopez-Villalobos, N.; Berry, Donagh P. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2009)
      Managing the contribution of prominent animals to the pedigree of livestock populations is a topic of increasing importance worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods of controlling the accumulation of inbreeding in the Irish Holstein-Friesian population through the methodology used to arrange contract matings. Two non-random mating systems were investigated, linear programming (LP) and sequential programming (SEQ); these were compared with random mating (RAN) and mating of the best sires to the best dams (TOP). All mating systems were compared across a range of objectives: to maximise genetic merit for the economic breeding index (EBI) used in Ireland, to minimise population coancestry with breeding females (R-value), and a dual objective of simultaneously maximising EBI and minimising coancestry with breeding females. Algorithms were developed to identify elite dams and sires from the national herd for use in the contract mating programme. One thousand contract matings were generated using each selection method, with the aim of producing 83 test sires (the number of bulls which it is feasible to test annually in Ireland) for use in a progeny testing scheme. The top 1,000 matings, as selected by the LP and SEQ methods, performed similarly when maximising the dual objective (average progeny EBI of €145 and an average coancestry of the progeny to the population of breeding females of 0.93%). The TOP and RAN methods both selected phantom progeny with higher coancestry with the breeding female population (1.21% and 1.34%, respectively) than the LP and SEQ methods. However the matings from the TOP method generated progeny of higher genetic merit (EBI = €199), whilst the progeny generated from the RAN method had lower genetic merit (EBI = €127) than those selected by the LP or SEQ methods.
    • Optimising The Response To Supplementary Concentrates By Beef Cattle In Winter

      Keane, Michael G.; Drennan, Michael J; Moloney, Aidan P (Teagasc, 2008-01-01)
      Concentrates are a major component of feed costs in winter finishing of beef cattle. Two separate experiments were carried out to evaluate the response to increasing supplementary concentrate level with grass silage and the effects of feeding the silage and concentrates separately or as a total mixed ration (TMR). In experiment 1, a total of 117 finishing steers (initial live weight 538 kg, s.d. 35.5) were assigned to a preexperimental slaughter group of 9 animals and to 6 feeding treatments of 18 animals each. The feeding treatments were: 1) silage (SO) only offered ad libitum, 2) SO plus a low level of concentrates offered separately (LS), 3) SO plus a low level of concentrates offered as a TMR (LM), 4) SO plus a medium level of concentrates offered separately (MS), 5) SO plus a medium level of concentrates offered as a TMR (MM), and 6) concentrates ad libitum plus a restricted silage allowance (AL). Low and medium target concentrate levels were 3 and 6 kg dry matter (DM) per head daily. When silage and concentrates were fed separately, the daily concentrate allowance was given in one morning feed. The animals were individually fed for a mean period of 132 days. After slaughter, carcasses were weighed and graded and the ribs joint was dissected into its component tissues. Silage DM intake decreased but total DM intake increased with increasing concentrate level. Live weight gains for SO, LS, LM, MS, MM and AL were 0.34, 0.86, 0.86, 1.02, 1.00 and 1.12 (s.e. 0.064) kg/day, respectively. Corresponding carcass weight gains were 0.25, 0.58, 0.58, 0.71, 0.68 and 0.82 (s.e. 0.028) kg/day. All measures of fatness increased, ribs joint bone proportion decreased, and muscle proportion was not significantly affected by dietary concentrate level. There were no significant interactions between concentrate level and method of feeding. Compared with offering the feeds separately, feeding a TMR increased silage DM intake by proportionately 0.06 and total DM intake by proportionately 0.04. Otherwise, method of feeding had no significant effect on performance, slaughter or carcass traits. Mean rumen pH decreased while ammonia concentration tended to increase with increasing concentrate level. Total volatile fatty acids and the acetate to propionate ratio were lowest for SO. Method of feeding had no significant effect on rumen fermentation.
    • Outdoor grazing of dairy cows on pasture versus indoor feeding on total mixed ration: Effects on gross composition and mineral content of milk during lactation

      Gulati, Arunima; Galvin, Norann; Lewis, Eva; Hennessy, Deirdre; O'Donovan, Michael; McManus, Jennifer J.; Fenelon, Mark A.; Guinee, Timothy P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Dairy Levy Trust Co-Operative Society Limited; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-08-15)
      The influence of feeding system and lactation period on the gross composition, macroelements (Ca, P, Mg, and Na), and trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mo, Mn, Se, and Co) of bovine milk was investigated. The feeding systems included outdoor grazing on perennial ryegrass pasture (GRO), outdoor grazing on perennial ryegrass and white clover pasture (GRC), and indoors offered total mixed ration (TMR). Sixty spring-calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 3 herds, each consisting of 20 cows, and balanced with respect to parity, calving date, and pre-experimental milk yield and milk solids yield. The herds were allocated to 1 of the 3 feeding systems from February to November. Milk samples were collected on 10 occasions over the period June 17 to November 26, at 2 or 3 weekly intervals, when cows were on average 119 to 281 d in lactation (DIL). The total lactation period was arbitrarily sub-divided into 2 lactation periods based on DIL, namely mid lactation, June 17 to September 9 when cows were 119 to 203 DIL; and late lactation, September 22 to November 26 when cows were 216 to 281 DIL. With the exception of Mg, Na, Fe, Mo, and Co, all other variables were affected by feeding system. The GRO milk had the highest mean concentrations of total solids, total protein, casein, Ca, and P. The TMR milk had the highest concentrations of lactose, Cu, and Se, and lowest level of total protein. The GRC milk had levels of lactose, Zn, and Cu similar to those of GRO milk, and concentrations of TS, Ca, and P similar to those of TMR milk. Lactation period affected all variables, apart from the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Se. On average, the proportion (%) of total Ca, P, Zn, Mn, or Se that sedimented with the casein on high-speed ultracentrifugation at 100,000 × g was ≥60%, whereas that of Na, Mg, or Mo was ≤45% total. The results demonstrate how the gross composition and elemental composition of milk can be affected by different feeding systems.
    • Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

      Hoogendam, K; Richardson, Esther K. B.; Mee, John F (Biomed Central, 2009-04-01)
      The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n = 2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using an ELISA. Herds were categorised by sero-status into positive, non-negative and negative, where a positive herd contained two or more positive cows, a non-negative herd contained only one positive cow and a negative herd contained no positive cows. Data at animal, parity and herd-level were analysed by multiple regression using general linear models. Positive herds (mean herd size = 129 cows) and non-negative herds (81 cows) were larger than negative herds (72 cows) (P < 0.01). Negative herds had the highest economic breeding index (EBI), while positive herds had the highest estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield. There was no significant effect of paratuberculosis sero-status at animal, parity or herd-level on milk yield, milk fat or protein production, somatic cell count score (SCCS) or calving interval. Negative herds tended to have a lower SCCS than positive and nonnegative herds (P = 0.087). This study only examined the effects of paratuberculosis sero-status but did not examine the clinical effects of Johne's disease at the farm or dairy industry levels.
    • Pathogen profile of clinical mastitis in Irish milk-recording herds reveals a complex aetiology

      Keane, Orla M; Budd, Kathleen E; Flynn, James; McCoy, Finola (British Veterinary Association, 2013-05-21)
      Effective mastitis control requires knowledge of the predominant pathogen challenges on the farm. In order to quantify this challenge, the aetiological agents associated with clinical mastitis in 30 milk-recording dairy herds in Ireland over a complete lactation were investigated. Standard bacteriology was performed on 630 pretreatment quarter milk samples, of which 56 per cent were culture-positive, 42 per cent culture-negative and 2 per cent contaminated. Two micro-organisms were isolated from almost 5 per cent of the culture-positive samples. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23 per cent), Streptococcus uberis (17 per cent), Escherichia coli (9 per cent), Streptococcus species (6 per cent), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (4 per cent) and other species (1 per cent). A wide variety of bacterial species were associated with clinical mastitis, with S aureus the most prevalent pathogen overall, followed by S uberis. However, the bacterial challenges varied widely from farm to farm. In comparison with previous reports, in the present study, the contagious pathogens S aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were less commonly associated with clinical mastitis, whereas, the environmental pathogens S uberis and E coli were found more commonly associated with clinical mastitis. While S aureus remains the pathogen most commonly associated with intramammary infection in these herds, environmental pathogens, such as S uberis and E coli also present a considerable challenge.
    • Performance and carcass traits of progeny of Limousin sires differing in genetic merit

      Keane, Michael G.; Diskin, Michael G. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2007)
      Genetic indices for growth and carcass classification are published for beef sires used in Ireland for artificial insemination (AI). The objective of this study was to compare growth and carcass traits of progeny of Limousin sires of low and high genetic index for growth. A total of 70 progeny (42 males and 28 females) out of predominantly Holstein-Friesian cows by 7 AI Limousin sires were reared together to slaughter. The 7 sires were classified as low (n=3) or high (n=4) index based on their published genetic index for growth. The male progeny were reared entire and all animals were slaughtered at about 20 months of age. Carcasses were classified for conformation and fatness, and a rib joint (ribs 6 to 10) was separated into fat, muscle and bone. Growth rate did not differ significantly between the index groups but tended to be higher for the high index progeny. This higher growth rate, combined with a significantly higher kill out proportion, resulted in carcass weight andcarcass weight per day of age being significantly higher for the high index progeny. Carcass conformation and fat class were not affected by genetic index, nor was the composition of the rib joint. Compared with males, females had a significantly lower growth rate and kill out proportion and, consequently, had a significantly lower carcass weight. The proportions of fat and bone in the rib joint were significantly higher, and the proportion of muscle was significantly lower for females than for males. It is concluded that carcass weight reflected sire group genetic index for growth but feed intake, carcass classification and rib joint composition were not affected.
    • Performance and feed intake of five beef suckler cow genotypes and pre-weaning growth of their progeny

      Murphy, B.M.; Drennan, Michael J; O'Mara, Frank P.; McGee, Mark; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2008)
      The effect of beef suckler cow genotype on feed intake, performance, milk yield and on pre-weaning growth of their progeny was determined over four lactations. The five cow genotypes examined were Limousin (L), Charolais (C), Limousin × Holstein-Friesian (LF), Limousin × (Limousin × Holstein-Friesian) (LLF) and Simmental × (Limousin × Holstein-Friesian) (SLF). The herd calved in spring and the progeny spent from April until weaning (October/ November) at pasture with their dams. Live weight (kg) at the start of the indoor winter period was greater (P < 0.001) for C (702) than L (616) cows who in turn were heavier than LF (552) and LLF (574), with SLF (582) being intermediate. Silage dry matter (DM) intake (kg /day) was greater (P < 0.01) for C and SLF cows than L and LLF, whereas LF were inter-mediate. Dry matter intake (kg/day) of zero-grazed grass did not differ (P > 0.05) between the genotypes but followed a similar trend to grass silage intake. The decrease in live weight over the indoor winter period was greater (P < 0.01) for L and C cows than for LLF and SLF, whereas LF were intermediate. The increase in live weight during the grazing season was greater (P < 0.01) for C cows than all except L, which were intermediate. Calving difficulty score was greater (P < 0.01) for C cows than LLF, L and SLF, whereas LF were intermediate. Birth weight of calves from LF cows was lower (P < 0.001) than C with L being intermediate, but greater than LLF, with SLF being intermediate. Milk yield (kg/day) was higher (P < 0.001) for LF (9.7) and SLF (8.7) cows than the other genotypes (5.5 to 7.0), which did not differ significantly. Pre-weaning live-weight gain was greater (P < 0.001) for progeny of LF cows than all other genotypes except SLF, which in turn were greater than L and C, with LLF being intermediate. In conclusion, calf pre-weaning growth was higher for cow genotypes with higher milk yield, which was also associated with higher cow DM intake.
    • Perinatal immuno/inflammatory responses in the presence or absence of bovine fetal infection

      Jawor, Paulina; Mee, John F; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; The National Centre for Research and Development; PBS2/A8/20/2013 (Biomed Central, 2018-11-01)
      Background It is known that the bovine fetus can mount an immune and inflammatory reaction to infection, but it is not known whether there is a contemporaneous maternal response. Nor is it known whether the response of calves which die perinatally, with or without infection, differs from that of live perinates. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine if acute phase reactant and immunoglobulin concentrations differed between calves (and their dams) in three groups: live calves (CC; n = 21) and dead calves with (PM INF+; n = 22) or without (PM INF-; n = 89) in utero infection. In calf plasma, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, immunoglobulins M, G1 and G2 and interleukin-6 were measured. In dam serum, SAA and Hp was measured and in amniotic and abomasal fluid, IL-6 was measured. Results Live calves had higher plasma concentrations of SAA and IL-6 than dead calves with (PM INF+) or without (PM INF-) in utero infection. Calves in the PM INF-, but not PM INF+ group, had higher Hp concentrations than calves in the CC group. Calves in the PM INF+ group had higher IgG1 concentrations than calves in the PM INF- and CC groups. Except for higher IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations, biomarker values did not differ significantly between dead calves with or without in utero infection. Live calves had higher IL-6 concentrations in abomasal fluid compared to PM INF- calves. There were no significant differences in blood biomarker concentrations between dams of the three groups of calves. Amniotic fluid IL-6 concentrations were higher from the dams of control calves than the dams of uninfected calves. Conclusions Differences in biomarkers (higher Hp and IgG1; lower SAA and IL-6) between perinatal mortalities and live perinates probably reflect differences between these two groups in age at sampling (SAA and IL-6) and in utero infection (IgG1). Out of the six analytes measured in calves, only IgG1 and IgG2 were biomarkers of (chronic) in utero infection.
    • Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

      Lejeune, Alexandre; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; Earley, Bernadette; Black, Alistair D; Campion, Deirdre P; Englishby, Tanya; Reilly, Petrina; O'Doherty, John V.; Sweeney, Torres (Biomed Central, 2010-03-31)
      Background: Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results: A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) in comparison to those indoors. Following mitogen stimulation, a lower level of interferon-γ was produced in leukocytes from the outdoor animals (P < 0.05). There was evidence of a gastrointestinal nematode infection in the outdoor animals with elevated levels of serum pepsinogen (P < 0.001), a higher number of eosinophils (P < 0.05) and a higher level of interleukin-4 and stem cell factor mRNA expression (P < 0.05) in the outdoor animals in comparison to the indoor animals. Lower levels of copper and iodine were measured in the outdoor animals in comparison to indoor animals (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.
    • Physiological and behavioural aspects of housing stress in cattle

      Earley, Bernadette; Gupta, Sandeep; Murray, Margaret; Prendiville, Daniel J.; European Union (Teagasc, 2008-12-01)
      The effect of various space allowances on pituitary, adrenal, immune responses and performance was investigated in 72 Holstein x Friesian bulls. Bulls (403 ± 3.5 kg) were blocked by weight and randomly assigned into two groups (familiar, F and unfamiliar, UF) x three (1.2, 2.7 and 4.2 m2 per bull; n = 24 bulls per space allowance) treatments and housed for 83 days in 18 pens (n = 4 per pen). Blood samples were collected on day –1, 0, 3, 14, 36 and 77 with respect to mixing and housing on day 0. The bulls were administered with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) on day 3 and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) on days 14, 36 and 77. The basal cortisol concentrations were not affected (P>0.05) by mixing of familiar and unfamiliar bulls. On day 3, basal cortisol was greater (P<0.05) in the bulls housed at 1.2 than those at 2.7 and 4.2 m2 space allowances while no effect was observed in ACTH-induced plasma cortisol concentration among treatments. Following CRH administration there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment and treatment x time on ACTH. On day 14, interferon-? production was lower (P<0.05) in the bulls housed at 4.2 vs 2.7 m2 and was intermediate but not (P>0.05) different for those housed at 1.2 m2. Bulls housed at either space allowances had (P<0.05) neutrophilia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia and decreased haemoglobin on day 3 compared with day 0. The liveweight gain from days 0 to 83 was lower (P< 0.05) in bulls housed at 1.2 compared with those at 2.7 and 4.2 m2. Housing bulls at 1.2 m2 space allowance had a detrimental effect on their growth and was associated with an acute rise in plasma cortisol concentration (on day 3) compared with space allowances of 2.7 and 4.2 m2/bull.
    • Physiological and behavioural aspects of housing stress in cattle.

      Earley, Bernadette; Gupta, Sandeep; Murray, Margaret; Prendiville, Daniel J. (Teagasc, 2008-12-01)
      The effect of various space allowances on pituitary, adrenal, immune responses and performance was investigated in 72 Holstein x Friesian bulls.The effect of transporting bulls for 12-h by road previously housed for 96 days at three space allowances (1.2, 2.7, 4.2 m2 per bull) on adrenal, haematological, immune responses, body temperature and performance was investigated. The effect of repeated regrouping and relocation (R&R) on behaviour of steers was investigated. The effect of repeated regrouping and relocation (R&R) of cattle on hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis, immune function, blood biochemical, hematological variables and ADG, was investigated.
    • Pig Farmers' Conference 2012: Proceedings from the Teagasc National Pig Conferences

      Lawlor, Peadar G; McKeon, Michael; Quinn, Amy; Norris, David; Owens, David; Boyle, Laura; McCutcheon, Gerard; Clarke, Seamas (Teagasc, 2012-10)
      Proceedings from the Teagasc National Pig Conferences which took place on 23 October in the Horse and Jockey Hotel, Tipperary and the 24 October in the Cavan Crystal Hotel, Cavan
    • Pig producer perspectives on the use of meat inspection as an animal health and welfare diagnostic tool in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

      Devitt, Catherine; Boyle, Laura; Teixeira, Dayane L.; O'Connell, Niamh E.; Hawe, M.; Hanlon, A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; RSF 11/S/107 (Biomed Central, 2016-02-09)
      Background Currently, there is growing interest in developing ante and post mortem meat inspection (MI) to incorporate measures of pig health and welfare for use as a diagnostic tool on pig farms. However, the success of the development of the MI process requires stakeholder engagement with the process. Knowledge gaps and issues of trust can undermine the effective exchange and utilisation of information across the supply chain. A social science research methodology was employed to establish stakeholder perspectives towards the development of MI to include measures of pig health and welfare. In this paper the findings of semi-structured telephone interviews with 18 pig producers from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland are presented. Results Producers recognised the benefit of the utilisation of MI data as a health and welfare diagnostic tool. This acknowledgment, however, was undermined for some by dissatisfaction with the current system of MI information feedback, by trust and fairness concerns, and by concerns regarding the extent to which data would be used in the producers’ interests. Tolerance of certain animal welfare issues may also have a negative impact on how producers viewed the potential of MI data. The private veterinary practitioner was viewed as playing a vital role in assisting them with the interpretation of MI data for herd health planning. Conclusions The development of positive relationships based on trust, commitment and satisfaction across the supply chain may help build a positive environment for the effective utilisation of MI data in improving pig health and welfare. The utilisation of MI as a diagnostic tool would benefit from the development of a communication strategy aimed at building positive relationships between stakeholders in the pig industry.
    • Plane of nutrition affects the phylogenetic diversity and relative abundance of transcriptionally active methanogens in the bovine rumen

      McGovern, Emily; McCabe, Matthew; Cormican, Paul; Popova, Milka; Keogh, Kate; Kelly, Alan K; Kenny, David A.; Waters, Sinead M. (Springer Nature, 2017-10-12)
      Methane generated during enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock species is a major contributor to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. A period of moderate feed restriction followed by ad libitum access to feed is widely applied in cattle management to exploit the animal’s compensatory growth potential and reduce feed costs. In the present study, we utilised microbial RNA from rumen digesta samples to assess the phylogenetic diversity of transcriptionally active methanogens from feed-restricted and non-restricted animals. To determine the contribution of different rumen methanogens to methanogenesis during dietary restriction of cattle, we conducted high-throughput mcrA cDNA amplicon sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq and analysed both the abundance and phylogenetic origin of different mcrA cDNA sequences. When compared to their unrestricted contemporaries, in feed-restricted animals, the methanogenic activity, based on mcrA transcript abundance, of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade increased while the methanogenic activity of the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade and members of the Methanomassiliicoccaceae family decreased. This study shows that the quantity of feed consumed can evoke large effects on the composition of methanogenically active species in the rumen of cattle. These data potentially have major implications for targeted CH4 mitigation approaches such as anti-methanogen vaccines and/or tailored dietary management.
    • Plane of nutrition before and after 6 months of age in Holstein-Friesian bulls: II. Effects on metabolic and reproductive endocrinology and identification of physiological markers of puberty and sexual maturation

      Byrne, Colin J; Fair, Seán; English, Anne-Marie; Urh, C.; Sauerwein, H.; Crowe, Mark A; Lonergan, P.; Kenny, David A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/S/116 (Elsevier, 2018-02-04)
      The aim of this study was (1) to examine the effect of plane of nutrition during the first and second 6 mo of life on systemic concentrations of reproductive hormones and metabolites in Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls, and (2) to establish relationships with age at puberty and postpubertal semen production potential. Holstein-Friesian bull calves (n = 83) with a mean (standard deviation) age and body weight of 17 (4.4) d and 52 (6.2) kg, respectively, were assigned to a high or low plane of nutrition for the first 6 mo of life. At 24 wk of age, bulls were reassigned, within treatment, either to remain on the same diet or to switch to the opposite diet until puberty, resulting in 4 treatment groups: high-high, high-low, low-low, and low-high. Monthly blood samples were analyzed for metabolites (albumin, urea, total protein, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, triglycerides and creatinine), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, FSH, and testosterone. A GnRH challenge was carried out at 16 and 32 wk of age (n = 9 bulls per treatment). Blood was collected at 15-min intervals for 165 min, with GnRH administered (0.05 mg/kg of body weight, i.v.) immediately after the third blood sample. Blood samples were subsequently analyzed for LH, FSH, and testosterone. Stepwise regression was used to detect growth and blood measurements to identify putative predictors of age at puberty and subsequent semen quality traits. Metabolic hormones and metabolites, in general, reflected metabolic status of bulls. Although FSH was unaffected by diet, it decreased with age both in monthly samples and following GnRH administration. Testosterone was greater in bulls on the high diet before and after 6 mo of age. Testosterone concentrations increased dramatically after 6 mo of age. Luteinizing hormone was unaffected by diet following GnRH administration but basal serum LH was greater in bulls on a high diet before 6 mo of age. In conclusion, the plane of nutrition offered before 6 mo of age influenced metabolic profiles, which are important for promoting GnRH pulsatility, in young bulls