• Application of the TruCulture® whole blood stimulation system for immune response profiling in cattle

      O’Brien, Megan B.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.; Meade, Kieran G.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 0005GE (Elsevier BV, 2020-03)
      Capturing the phenotypic variation in immune responses holds enormous promise for the development of targeted treatments for disease as well as tailored vaccination schedules. However, accurate detection of true biological variation can be obscured by the lack of standardised immune assays. The TruCulture® whole blood stimulation system has now been extensively used to detect basal and induced immune responses to a range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in human peripheral blood. This study demonstrates the optimisation of this commercially available assay for systemic immune phenotyping in cattle. The early immune response in Holstein-Friesian bull calves (n = 10) was assessed by haematology, flow cytometry and cytokine expression profiling after 24 h ex-vivo PAMP (LPS, poly (I:C) and zymosan) stimulation in TruCulture® tubes. A comparative analysis was also performed with a traditional whole blood stimulation assay and cell viability using both systems was also evaluated. Results: Supernatant collected from TruCulture® tubes showed a significant increase in IL-1β and IL-8 expression compared to null stimulated tubes in response to both LPS and zymosan. In contrast, a detectable immune response was not apparent at the standard concentration of poly (I:C). Conventional whole blood cultures yielded similar response profiles, although the magnitude of the response was higher to both LPS and zymosan, which may be attributed to prokaryotic strain-specificity or batch of the stimulant used. Despite being a closed system, HIF1A expression – used as a measure of hypoxia was not increased, suggesting the TruCulture® assay did not negatively affect cell viability. This represents the first reported use of this novel standardised assay in cattle, and indicates that the concentration of poly (I:C) immunogenic in humans is insufficient to induce cytokine responses in cattle. We conclude that the low blood volume and minimally invasive TruCulture® assay system offers a practical and informative technique to assess basal and induced systemic immune responses in cattle.
    • The application of transcriptomic data in the authentication of beef derived from contrasting production systems

      Sweeney, Torres; Lejeune, Alexandre; Moloney, Aidan; Monahan, Frank J; Gettigan, Paul M; Downey, Gerard; Park, Stephen D. E.; Ryan, Marion T; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Biomed Central, 2016-09-21)
      Background Differences between cattle production systems can influence the nutritional and sensory characteristics of beef, in particular its fatty acid (FA) composition. As beef products derived from pasture-based systems can demand a higher premium from consumers, there is a need to understand the biological characteristics of pasture produced meat and subsequently to develop methods of authentication for these products. Here, we describe an approach to authentication that focuses on differences in the transcriptomic profile of muscle from animals finished in different systems of production of practical relevance to the Irish beef industry. The objectives of this study were to identify a panel of differentially expressed (DE) genes/networks in the muscle of cattle raised outdoors on pasture compared to animals raised indoors on a concentrate based diet and to subsequently identify an optimum panel which can classify the meat based on a production system. Results A comparison of the muscle transcriptome of outdoor/pasture-fed and Indoor/concentrate-fed cattle resulted in the identification of 26 DE genes. Functional analysis of these genes identified two significant networks (1: Energy Production, Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry; and 2: Lipid Metabolism, Molecular Transport, Small Molecule Biochemistry), both of which are involved in FA metabolism. The expression of selected up-regulated genes in the outdoor/pasture-fed animals correlated positively with the total n-3 FA content of the muscle. The pathway and network analysis of the DE genes indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and FYN/AMPK could be implicit in the regulation of these alterations to the lipid profile. In terms of authentication, the expression profile of three DE genes (ALAD, EIF4EBP1 and NPNT) could almost completely separate the samples based on production system (95 % authentication for animals on pasture-based and 100 % for animals on concentrate- based diet) in this context. Conclusions The majority of DE genes between muscle of the outdoor/pasture-fed and concentrate-fed cattle were related to lipid metabolism and in particular β-oxidation. In this experiment the combined expression profiles of ALAD, EIF4EBP1 and NPNT were optimal in classifying the muscle transcriptome based on production system. Given the overall lack of comparable studies and variable concordance with those that do exist, the use of transcriptomic data in authenticating production systems requires more exploration across a range of contexts and breeds.
    • Are some teat disinfectant formulations more effective against specific bacteria isolated on teat skin than others?

      Fitzpatrick, Sarah R; Garvey, Mary; Flynn, Jim; Jordan, Kieran; Gleeson, David E; Dairy Research Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2016054 (Biomed Central, 2019-04-25)
      The use of pre- and post-milking teat disinfectants can reduce teat bacterial load and aid in the collection of high-quality milk. The objective of this study was to compare the reduction in bacteria populations on teat skin after the application of different commercial teat disinfectant products. Ten teat disinfectant products were applied to the teats of 10 Holstein–Friesian cows. One cow received one teat disinfectant product at each sampling point before cluster application for milking. A composite swab sample was taken of the 4 teats of each cow before and after teat disinfectant application. Swab samples were placed on three different selective agars to enumerate bacterial counts of staphylococcal, streptococcal and coliforms isolates on teat skin. Staphylococcal isolates were the most prominent bacterial group recovered on teat swabs (49%), followed by streptococcal (36%) and coliform (15%) isolates before the application of disinfectant. The average bacterial reductions on teat skin were shown to be 76%, 73% and 60% for staphylococcal, streptococcal and coliform isolates, respectively. All of the teat disinfectant products tested reduced teat bacterial load for all three bacterial groups. Product 4 containing 0.6% w/w diamine was the most effective against bacterial populations of staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates on teat skin with a reduction of 90% and 94%, respectively. Whereas product 10, which contained 0.5% w/w iodine, resulted in the highest reduction in coliforms on teat skin with a reduction of 91%. Results from this study suggest that specific bacterial population loads on teats can be reduced using different teat disinfectant formulations.
    • Artificial rearing affects piglets pre-weaning behaviour, welfare and growth performance

      Schmitt, Océane; O'Driscoll, Keelin; Boyle, Laura; Baxter, Emma M.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 13S428 (Elsevier, 2018-11-02)
      One strategy adopted on farms to deal with managing large litters involves removing piglets from their mothers at seven days old to be reared in specialised accommodation with milk replacer. Effects on piglet behaviour, growth and some aspects of welfare were evaluated in this study by comparing 10 pairs of two litters (one sow-reared: SR, one artificially-reared: AR) selected at seven days-old at a similar weight. Piglet behaviour was recorded for 20 min following transfer of AR piglets to the artificial-rearing enclosure (D0) and for 20 min hourly between 09:00 h and 17:00 h (8 h) on D5 and D12. Hourly 5 min live observations were also undertaken. Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA) was conducted on D14 to evaluate piglets’ emotional state. Survival and illness events were recorded until weaning. On D0, D1, D8 and D15 piglets were weighed and scored for tear staining, dirtiness of the face and severity of lesions on the snout, limbs, ear and tail. Survival and illness rates, as well as the rates of behaviours/min were analysed using GLMMs. Weights and QBA scores were analysed using GLM. Lesions, tear staining and dirtiness scores were averaged per litter and analysed using GLM. When AR piglets were transferred to the artificial-rearing enclosure, their behaviour was not different to SR piglets. Over the two observation days, AR piglets performed more belly-nosing (F1,76.53 = 42.25; P < 0.001), nursing-related displacements (F1,79 = 19.32, P < 0.001), visits to the milk cup (compared to nursing bouts; F1,73.8 = 38.42, P < 0.001), and oral manipulation of littermates’ ears (F1,91.95 = 12.79, P < 0.001) and tails (F1,58.54 = 15.63, P < 0.001) than SR piglets. However, SR piglets played alone (F1,88.99 = 8.29, P < 0.005) and explored their environment (F1,99.42 = 4.52, P < 0.05) more frequently than AR piglets. The QBA scores indicated a lower emotional state in AR piglets (t25.1=-3.25, P < 0.05). Survival rate and overall illness rate of piglets were similar between the treatments. AR piglets experienced a growth check following their transfer to the artificial-rearing enclosure and remained lighter than SR piglets through to weaning (6.53 ± 0.139 kg vs. 7.97 ± 0.168 kg, t256 = 9.79, P < 0.001). Overall, snout lesion scores were not different between the treatments, but AR piglets had lower limb (F1,10.1 = 5.89, P < 0.05) and ear (F1,14.5 = 24.89, P < 0.001) lesion scores and higher tail lesion scores (F1,34.5 = 15.54, P < 0.001). AR piglets were dirtier (F1,17.4 = 23.38, P < 0.001) but had lower tear staining scores (F1,19.1 = 68.40, P < 0.001) than SR piglets. In conclusion, artificial rearing impaired piglets’ behaviour, welfare and growth.
    • Aspects of management options for pasture-based dairy production stocked at two cows per hectare

      Humphreys, James; Lawless, Aidan; Healy, M.; Boland, A.; McNamara, K. (Teagasc, 2007-01-01)
      White clover in association with Rhizobium bacteria have the capacity to fix or convent atmospheric N into plant available N. This can make a considerable contribution to sward productivity. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine the upper carrying capacity of grass-white clover swards receiving 90 kg fertilizer N/ha. A second objective was to examine the impact of grass-clover swards on mineral-N in the soil and losses of nitrate-N from soil to drainage water during the winter. This experiment was conducted at Solohead Research Farm. There were three treatments: (i) A grass-only treatment (FN) stocked at 2.0 cows per ha in 2003 and 2.2 cows per ha during 2004, 2005 and 2006. This treatment received an average of 226 kg per ha of fertilizer N per year during these years. (ii) A grass-clover treatment (WC) stocked at the same rates as FN and received an average of 90 kg per ha of fertilizer N per year during the experiment. (iii) A grass-only treatment (CC) that was gradually converted over to grass-clover during the experiment and stocked at 2.0 cows per ha throughout the experiment. Fertilizer N input was gradually lowered from 150 kg per ha in 2003 to a target of 90 kg per ha in 2005 and 2006.
    • An assessment of the production, reproduction, and functional traits of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey × Holstein-Friesian, and Norwegian Red × (Jersey × Holstein-Friesian) cows in pasture-based systems

      McClearn, B.; Delaby, L.; Gilliland, T.J.; Guy, C.; Dineen, M.; Coughlan, F.; Buckley, Frank; McCarthy, B.; Dairy Research Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme (Elsevier, 2020-04-03)
      Pasture-based production systems typically require highly fertile, healthy, and robust genetics, with greater emphasis on milk solids (MSo; kg of fat + protein) production as opposed to milk yield. This study assessed milk production, production efficiency, reproductive performance, body weight (BW), body condition score, and functional traits in 3 different dairy cow genotypes: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (JEX), and Norwegian Red × (Jersey × Holstein- Friesian) (3-way). The 3 genotypes were rotationally grazed on 4 different grazing treatments after calving in spring and were stocked at a rate of 2.75 cows/ha. Holstein-Friesian cows produced higher daily and total milk yields compared with JEX and 3-way cows (5,718 vs. 5,476 and 5,365 kg/cow, respectively). However, JEX and 3-way cows had higher milk fat and protein contents (4.86 and 4.75%, respectively, for JEX and 3.87 and 3.88%, respectively, for 3-way) compared with HF (4.52 and 3.72%), resulting in similar MSo yield for JEX and HF (469 and 460 kg/cow) and slightly lower MSo yield for 3-way (453 kg/cow) compared with JEX. As parity increased, milk and MSo yield per cow increased. Reproductive performance was not significantly different between the 3 genotypes, which had similar 24-d submission rates, 6-wk pregnancy rates, and overall pregnancy rates over the 4-yr period. No difference in calving difficulty, incidence of mastitis, or incidence of lameness was observed among the 3 genotypes. Body weight was significantly different among all 3 genotypes, with HF being the heaviest followed by 3-way and JEX (530, 499, and 478 kg, respectively), and 3-way cows had a higher body condition score throughout lactation compared with HF and JEX cows. The differences in BW coupled with similar MSo production resulted in JEX cows having the highest production efficiency (4.58 kg of MSo/kg of metabolic BW), 3-way cows being intermediate (4.30 kg of MSo/kg of metabolic BW), and HF cows having the lowest (4.16 kg of MSo/kg of metabolic BW). In conclusion, HF herds with poor reproductive performance and low milk fat and protein contents are likely to benefit considerably from crossbreeding with Jersey, and all herds are likely to benefit in terms of production efficiency. However, where herd performance, particularly in relation to reproductive performance, is comparable with HF in the current study, crossbreeding with Jersey or Norwegian Red is unlikely to lead to significant improvements in overall herd performance.
    • Associating cow characteristics with mobility scores in pasture-based dairy cows

      O'Connor, Aisling; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.; de Boer, Imke J. M.; Hogeveen, Henk; Sayers, Riona; Byrne, Nicky; Ruelle, Elodie; Shalloo, Laurence; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-07-10)
      The quality of dairy cow mobility can have significant welfare, economic, and environmental consequences that have yet to be extensively quantified for pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to characterize mobility quality by examining associations between specific mobility scores, claw disorders (both the type and severity), body condition score (BCS), and cow parity. Data were collected for 6,927 cows from 52 pasture-based dairy herds, including mobility score (0 = optimal mobility; 1, 2, or 3 = increasing severities of suboptimal mobility), claw disorder type and severity, BCS, and cow parity. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. The outcome variable was mobility score, and the predictor variables were BCS, type and severity of claw disorders, and cow parity. Three models were run, each with 1 reference category (mobility score 0, 1, or 2). Each model also included claw disorders (overgrown claw, sole hemorrhage, white line disease, sole ulcer, and digital dermatitis), BCS, and cow parity as predictor variables. The presence of most types of claw disorders had odds ratios >1, indicating an increased likelihood of a cow having suboptimal mobility. Low BCS (BCS <3.00) was associated with an increased risk of a cow having suboptimal mobility, and relatively higher parity was also associated with an increased risk of suboptimal mobility. These results confirm an association between claw disorders, BCS, cow parity, and dairy cow mobility score. Therefore, mobility score should be routinely practiced to identify cows with slight deviations from the optimal mobility pattern and to take preventive measures to keep the problem from worsening.
    • Associating cow characteristics with mobility scores in pasture-based dairy cows

      O'Connor, Aisling; Bokkers, E.A.M.; de Boer, I.J.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Sayers, Riona; Byrne, Nicky; Ruelle, Elodie; Shalloo, Laurence; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier for American Dairy Science Association, 2019-07-10)
      The quality of dairy cow mobility can have significant welfare, economic, and environmental consequences that have yet to be extensively quantified for pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to characterize mobility quality by examining associations between specific mobility scores, claw disorders (both the type and severity), body condition score (BCS), and cow parity. Data were collected for 6,927 cows from 52 pasture-based dairy herds, including mobility score (0 = optimal mobility; 1, 2, or 3 = increasing severities of suboptimal mobility), claw disorder type and severity, BCS, and cow parity. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. The outcome variable was mobility score, and the predictor variables were BCS, type and severity of claw disorders, and cow parity. Three models were run, each with 1 reference category (mobility score 0, 1, or 2). Each model also included claw disorders (overgrown claw, sole hemorrhage, white line disease, sole ulcer, and digital dermatitis), BCS, and cow parity as predictor variables. The presence of most types of claw disorders had odds ratios >1, indicating an increased likelihood of a cow having suboptimal mobility. Low BCS (BCS <3.00) was associated with an increased risk of a cow having suboptimal mobility, and relatively higher parity was also associated with an increased risk of suboptimal mobility. These results confirm an association between claw disorders, BCS, cow parity, and dairy cow mobility score. Therefore, mobility score should be routinely practiced to identify cows with slight deviations from the optimal mobility pattern and to take preventive measures to keep the problem from worsening.
    • Association between body condition score and live weight in pasture-based Holstein-Friesian dairy cows

      Berry, Donagh; MacDonald, Kevin A.; Penno, John W.; Roche, John R. (Cambridge University Press: Published for the Institute of Food Research and the Hannah Research Institute, 2006-11)
      The objective was to quantify the strength of the relationship between body condition score (BCS) and live weight (LW) in pasture-based Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, and to determine the kg LW per unit BCS. A total of 26021 test-day records with information on both BCS (1–10 scale, where 1 is emaciated and 10 is obese) and LW across 1110 lactations from one research farm were used in the analysis. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine the degree of association between BCS and LW in different parities, stages of the inter-calving interval and years. Correlations between BCS and LW were relatively consistent, with the mean correlation between BCS and LW across all data of 0·55 implying that differences in BCS explain approximately 30% of the variation in LW. Significantly different regressions of LW on BCS were present within stage of inter-calving interval by parity subclasses. Excluding calving, LW per unit BCS varied from 17 kg (early to mid lactation in parity 1) to 36 kg (early lactation in parity 4 and 5). However, LW per unit BCS was greatest at calving varying from 44 kg in first parity animals to 62 kg in second parity animals. On average, 1 BCS unit equated to 31 kg LW across all data.
    • The association between herd- and cow-level factors and somatic cell count of Irish dairy cows

      McParland, Sinead; O'Brien, Bernadette; McCarthy, J.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 10/RD/AAQUALITYMILK/TMFRC713 (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2013)
      Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of both udder health and milk quality and is measured at an animal level through national milk recording schemes. The objective of this study was to assess the animal and herd factors contributing to elevated SCC (i.e. poorer milk quality). Test day records (n = 2,658,928) from 519,456 cow lactations obtained between 2007 and 2011 were included in the analyses. Herd factors tested included the geographical region of the herd and production system operated (spring calving or mixed calving system). Animal factors tested included breed, parity and age nested within parity. Four definitions of normalised SCC (i.e. SCS) were considered: 1) average test-day SCS within a 24 hour period (TD_SCS), 2) maximum SCS (peak_SCS), 3) minimum SCS (min_SCS), and 4) average SCS (avg_SCS) recorded across cow lactation; in addition, the proportion of test day records with an SCC count >200,000 (prop_200) or >250,000 (prop_250) within cow lactation were included. Following adjustment for fixed effects, average TD_SCS was 179,308 cells per mL while avg_SCS, and average min_SCS and peak_SCS were 119,481, 50,992 and 298,813 cells per mL, respectively. All animal and herd factors had a significant effect on SCC. Older animals, animals which were younger at calving than contemporaries and Holstein animals had higher SCC than younger alternative breed animals who calved at the median age. In addition, mixed calving production systems and herds in Connaught had higher SCC than spring calving herds in the other regions of Ireland.
    • Association between somatic cell count during the first lactation and the cumulative milk yield of cows in Irish dairy herds

      McCoy, Finola; Archer, Simon; Wapenaar, Wendela; Green, Martin J.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2014-01-30)
      Reduced potential milk yield is an important component of mastitis costs in dairy cows. The first aim of this study was to assess associations between somatic cell count (SCC) during the first lactation, and cumulative milk yield over the first lactation and subsequent lifetime of cows in Irish dairy herds. The second aim was to assess the association between SCC at 5 to 30 d in milk during parity 1 (SCC1), and SCC over the entire first lactation for cows in Irish dairy herds. The data set studied included records from 51,483 cows in 5,900 herds. Somatic cell count throughout the first lactation was summarized using the geometric mean and variance of SCC. Data were analyzed using linear models that included random effects to account for the lack of independence between observations, and herd-level variation in coefficients. Models were developed in a Bayesian framework and parameters were estimated from 10,000 Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. The final models were a good fit to the data. A 1-unit increase in mean natural logarithm SCC over the first lactation was associated with a median decrease in first lactation and lifetime milk yield of 135 and 1,663 kg, respectively. A 1-unit increase in the variance of natural logarithm SCC over the first lactation was associated with a median decrease in lifetime milk yield of 719 kg. To demonstrate the context of lifetime milk yield results, microsimulation was used to model the trajectory of individual cows and evaluate the expected outcomes for particular changes in herd-level geometric mean SCC over the first lactation. A 75% certainty of savings of at least €199/heifer in the herd was detected if herd-level geometric mean SCC over the first lactation was reduced from ≥120,000 to ≤72,000 cells/mL. The association between SCC1 and SCC over the remainder of the first lactation was highly herd dependent, indicating that control measures for heifer mastitis should be preferentially targeted on an individual-herd basis toward either the pre- and peripartum period, or the lactating period, to optimize the lifetime milk yield of dairy cows.
    • Association between somatic cell count early in the first lactation and the lifetime milk yield of cows in Irish dairy herds

      Archer, Simon; McCoy, Finola; Wapenaar, Wendela; Green, Martin J.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2013-03-14)
      Change in lifetime milk yield is an important component of the cost of diseases in dairy cows. Knowledge of the likelihood and scale of potential savings through disease prevention measures is important to evaluate how much expenditure on control measures is rational. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic cell count (SCC) at 5 to 30 d in milk during parity 1 (SCC1), and lifetime milk yield for cows in Irish dairy herds. The data set studied included records from 53,652 cows in 5,922 Irish herds. This was split into 2 samples of 2,500 and 3,422 herds at random. Linear models with lifetime milk yield and first-lactation milk yield as the outcomes and random effects to account for variation between herds were fitted to the data for the first sample of herds; data for the second sample were used for cross-validation. The models were developed in a Bayesian framework to include all uncertainty in posterior predictions and parameters were estimated from 10,000 Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. The final model was a good fit to the data and appeared generalizable to other Irish herds. A unit increase in the natural logarithm of SCC1 was associated with a median decrease in lifetime milk yield of 864 kg, and a median decrease in first-lactation milk yield of 105 kg. To clarify the meaning of the results in context, microsimulation was used to model the trajectory of individual cows, and evaluate the expected outcomes for particular changes in the herd-level prevalence of cows with SCC1 ≥400,000 cells/mL. Differences in mean lifetime milk yield associated with these changes were multiplied by an estimated gross margin for each cow to give the potential difference in milk revenue. Results were presented as probabilities of savings; for example, a 75% probability of savings of at least €97 or €115/heifer calved into the herd existed if the prevalence of cows with SCC1 ≥400,000 cells/mL was reduced from ≥20 to <10 or <5%, respectively, and at least €71/heifer calved into the herd if the prevalence of cows with SCC1 ≥400,000 cells/mL was reduced from ≥10 to <5%. The results indicate large differences in lifetime milk yield, depending on SCC early in the first lactation and the findings can be used to assess where specific interventions to control heifer mastitis prepartum are likely to be cost effective.
    • Association between somatic cell count early in the first lactation and the lifetime milk yield of cows in Irish dairy herds

      Archer, S.C.; Mc Coy, F.; Wapenaar, W.; Green, M.J.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier for American Dairy Science Association, 2013-05-18)
      Change in lifetime milk yield is an important component of the cost of diseases in dairy cows. Knowledge of the likelihood and scale of potential savings through disease prevention measures is important to evaluate how much expenditure on control measures is rational. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic cell count (SCC) at 5 to 30 d in milk during parity 1 (SCC1), and lifetime milk yield for cows in Irish dairy herds. The data set studied included records from 53,652 cows in 5,922 Irish herds. This was split into 2 samples of 2,500 and 3,422 herds at random. Linear models with lifetime milk yield and first-lactation milk yield as the outcomes and random effects to account for variation between herds were fitted to the data for the first sample of herds; data for the second sample were used for cross-validation. The models were developed in a Bayesian framework to include all uncertainty in posterior predictions and parameters were estimated from 10,000 Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. The final model was a good fit to the data and appeared generalizable to other Irish herds. A unit increase in the natural logarithm of SCC1 was associated with a median decrease in lifetime milk yield of 864 kg, and a median decrease in first-lactation milk yield of 105 kg. To clarify the meaning of the results in context, microsimulation was used to model the trajectory of individual cows, and evaluate the expected outcomes for particular changes in the herdlevel prevalence of cows with SCC1 ≥400,000 cells/mL. Differences in mean lifetime milk yield associated with these changes were multiplied by an estimated gross margin for each cow to give the potential difference in milk revenue. Results were presented as probabilities of savings; for example, a 75% probability of savings of at least €97 or €115/heifer calved into the herd existed if the prevalence of cows with SCC1 ≥400,000 cells/ mL was reduced from ≥20 to <10 or <5%, respectively, and at least €71/heifer calved into the herd if the prevalence of cows with SCC1 ≥400,000 cells/mL was reduced from ≥10 to <5%. The results indicate large differences in lifetime milk yield, depending on SCC early in the first lactation and the findings can be used to assess where specific interventions to control heifer mastitis prepartum are likely to be cost effective.
    • Association between somatic cell count early in the first lactation and the longevity of Irish dairy cows

      Archer, Simon; McCoy, Finola; Wapenaar, Wendela; Green, Martin J.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2013-03-21)
      Reduced longevity of cows is an important component of mastitis costs, and increased somatic cell count (SCC) early in the first lactation has been reported to increase culling risk throughout the first lactation. Generally, cows must survive beyond the first lactation to break even on their rearing costs. The aim of this research was to assess the association between SCC of primiparous cows at 5 to 30 days in milk (SCC1), and survival over a 5-y period for cows in Irish dairy herds. The data set used for model development was based on 147,458 test day records from 7,537 cows in 812 herds. Cows were censored at their last recording if identified at a later date in other herds or if recorded at the last available test date for their herd, otherwise, date of disposal was taken to be at the last test date for each cow. Survival time was calculated as the number of days between the dates of first calving and the last recording, which was split into 50-d intervals. Data were analyzed in discrete time logistic survival models that accounted for clustering of 50-d intervals within cows, and cows within herds. Models were fitted in a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. Model fit was assessed by comparison of posterior predictions to the observed disposal risk for cows aggregated by parameters in the model. Model usefulness was assessed by cross validation in a separate data set, which contained 144,113 records from 7,353 cows in 808 herds, and posterior predictions were compared with the observed disposal risk for cows aggregated by parameters of biological importance. Disposal odds increased by a factor of 5% per unit increase in ln SCC1. Despite this, posterior predictive distributions revealed that the probability of reducing replacement costs by >€10 per heifer calved, through decreasing the herd level prevalence of cows with SCC1 ≥400,000 cells/mL (from an initial prevalence of ≥20 to <10%) only exceeded 50% for less than 1 in 5 Irish herds. These results indicate that the effect of a reduction in the prevalence of cows with SCC1 ≥400,000 cells/mL on replacement costs alone for most Irish dairy herds is small, and future research should investigate other potential losses, such as the effect of SCC1 on lifetime milk yield.
    • Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

      Giblin, Linda; Butler, Stephen T.; Kearney, Breda M.; Waters, Sinead M.; Callanan, Michael J.; Berry, Donagh; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Irish Dairy Levy Research Trust; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; RSF-06-0353; et al. (Biomed Central, 29/07/2010)
      Background: Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results: All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein concentration and calf perinatal mortality. It had a tendency to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The G allele of LEP-1238 was associated (P < 0.05) with reduced milk fat concentration, reduced milk protein concentration, longer gestation length and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with an increase in calving difficulty, calf perinatal mortality and somatic cells in the milk. LEP-963 exhibited an association (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and gestation length. It also tended to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The R25C SNP associated (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and length of gestation. The T allele of the Y7F SNP significantly associated with reduced angularity (P < 0.01) and reduced milk protein yield (P < 0.05). There was also a tendency (P < 0.1) for Y7F to associate with increased body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P < 0.1). A80V associated with reduced survival in the herd (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C) associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.
    • Association of genetic polymorphisms related to Johne’s disease with estimated breeding values of Holstein sires for milk ELISA test scores

      Mallikarjunappa, Sanjay; Schenkel, Flavio S; Brito, Luiz F; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Miglior, Filippo; Chesnais, Jacques; Lohuis, Michael; Meade, Kieran G; Karrow, Niel A; Semex Alliance; et al. (Biomed Central, 2020-05-27)
      Background Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants. Since there are currently no effective vaccine or treatment options available to control JD, genetic selection may be an alternative strategy to enhance JD resistance. Numerous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with MAP infection status based on published genome-wide association and candidate gene studies. The main objective of this study was to validate these SNPs that were previously identified to be associated with JD by testing their effect on Holstein bulls’ estimated breeding values (EBVs) for milk ELISA test scores, an indirect indicator of MAP infection status in cattle. Results Three SNPs, rs41810662, rs41617133 and rs110225854, located on Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 16, 23 and 26, respectively, were confirmed as significantly associated with Holstein bulls’ EBVs for milk ELISA test score (FDR < 0.01) based on General Quasi Likelihood Scoring analysis (GQLS) analysis. Single-SNP regression analysis identified four SNPs that were associated with sire EBVs (FDR < 0.05). This includes two SNPs that were common with GQLS (rs41810662 and rs41617133), with the other two SNPs being rs110494981 and rs136182707, located on BTA9 and BTA16, respectively. Conclusions The findings of this study validate the association of SNPs with JD MAP infection status and highlight the need to further investigate the genomic regions harboring these SNPs.
    • Association of season and herd size with somatic cell count for cows in Irish, English, and Welsh dairy herds

      Archer, Simon; McCoy, Finola; Wapenaar, Wendela; Green, Martin J.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2013-01-12)
      The aims of this study were to describe associations of time of year, and herd size with cow somatic cell count (SCC) for Irish, English, and Welsh dairy herds. Random samples of 497 and 493 Irish herds, and two samples of 200 English and Welsh (UK) herds were selected. Random effects models for the natural logarithm of individual cow test day SCC were developed using data from herds in one sub-dataset from each country. Data from the second sub-datasets were used for cross validation. Baseline model results showed that geometric mean cow SCC (GSCC) in Irish herds was highest from February to August, and ranged from 111,000 cells/mL in May to 61,000 cells/mL in October. For cows in UK herds, GSCC ranged from 84,000 cells/mL in February and June, to 66,000 cells/mL in October. The results highlight the importance of monitoring cow SCC during spring and summer despite low bulk milk SCC at this time for Irish herds. GSCC was lowest in Irish herds of up to 130 cows (63,000 cells/mL), and increased for larger herds, reaching 68,000 cells/mL in herds of up to 300 cows. GSCC in UK herds was lowest for herds of 130–180 cows (60,000 cells/mL) and increased to 63,000 cells/mL in herds of 30 cows, and 68,000 cells/mL in herds of 300 cows. Importantly, these results suggest expansion may be associated with increased cow SCC, highlighting the importance of appropriate management, to benefit from potential economies of scale, in terms of udder health.
    • Association of season and herd size with somatic cell count for cows in Irish, English, and Welsh dairy herds

      Archer, Simon C.; Mc Coy, Finola; Wapenaar, Wendela; Green, Martin J.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier BV, 2013-06-03)
      The aims of this study were to describe associations of time of year, and herd size with cow somatic cell count (SCC) for Irish, English, and Welsh dairy herds. Random samples of 497 and 493 Irish herds, and two samples of 200 English and Welsh (UK) herds were selected. Random effects models for the natural logarithm of individual cow test day SCC were developed using data from herds in one sub-dataset from each country. Data from the second sub-datasets were used for cross validation. Baseline model results showed that geometric mean cow SCC (GSCC) in Irish herds was highest from February to August, and ranged from 111,000 cells/mL in May to 61,000 cells/mL in October. For cows in UK herds, GSCC ranged from 84,000 cells/mL in February and June, to 66,000 cells/mL in October. The results highlight the importance of monitoring cow SCC during spring and summer despite low bulk milk SCC at this time for Irish herds. GSCC was lowest in Irish herds of up to 130 cows (63,000 cells/mL), and increased for larger herds, reaching 68,000 cells/mL in herds of up to 300 cows. GSCC in UK herds was lowest for herds of 130–180 cows (60,000 cells/mL) and increased to 63,000 cells/mL in herds of 30 cows, and 68,000 cells/mL in herds of 300 cows. Importantly, these results suggest expansion may be associated with increased cow SCC, highlighting the importance of appropriate management, to benefit from potential economies of scale, in terms of udder health.
    • Associations between colostrum management, passive immunity, calf-related hygiene practices, and rates of mortality in preweaning dairy calves

      Barry, John; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.; Berry, Donagh; de Boer, Imke J.M.; McClure, J. Trenton; Kennedy, Emer; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2019-09-11)
      Calves are particularly vulnerable to health issues before weaning and experience high rates of mortality. Poor colostrum quality or substandard colostrum management, combined with poor hygiene, can increase disease susceptibility, contributing to elevated mortality rates. This study aimed to assess colostrum and calf management together with subsequent mortality rates in preweaning calves. Forty-seven Irish spring-calving, pasture-based dairy herds were enrolled in the study. To investigate whether colostrum and hygiene practices change as the calving season progresses, each farm was visited in both the first and last 6 wk of the calving season. The concentration of IgG in 250 colostrum samples and 580 calf serum samples was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay. Mean colostrum IgG concentration was 85 mg/mL, and mean calf serum IgG concentration was 30.9 and 27.1 mg/mL, respectively, in the first and last 6 wk of the calving season. Smaller herd size and younger age at sampling were associated with higher calf serum IgG concentration. Dairy breed calves were associated with higher serum IgG concentrations compared with beef breed calves; no association was detected based on sex. For feeding equipment hygiene, we assessed the presence of protein residues and found that hygiene levels tended to worsen from the first to the final 6 wk of the calving season. We found no association between feeding equipment hygiene and herd size or 28-d calf mortality rate. Colostrum and calf management practices were not associated with either calf serum IgG concentration or 28-d calf mortality rate. We found that IgG concentration in colostrum produced in Irish dairy herds was generally good, although large variation existed, emphasizing the need for assessment of colostrum before feeding. Results also suggested that hygiene practices associated with calf rearing can be improved, particularly in the latter half of the calving season.
    • Associations between exposure to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and milk production, reproductive performance, and mortality in Irish dairy herds

      Sayers, Riona; Irish Dairy Levy (Elsevier, 2016-12-09)
      As cost-benefit analyses are required to prioritize and promote disease control and eradication programs within a jurisdiction, national data relating to disease-related production losses are particularly useful. The objectives of the current study were to use Irish bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) prevalence data in dairy herds, obtained by bulk milk sampling on 4 occasions over the 2009 lactation, to document associations between milk production, fertility performance, mortality, and BoHV-1 herd status. Bulk milk (n = 305) antibody ELISA was used to classify farms as positive or negative in terms of endemic BoHV-1. Cow-level (milk parameters only) and herd-level performance data were sourced from the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation. Ordinary linear and negative binomial regressions were used to investigate associations between milk, fertility, and mortality performance and herd-level BoHV-1 results (both categorical and continuous variables). Only slight effects on the rates of carryover cows, nonpregnant cows, and total deaths were highlighted with increasing ELISA sample/positive (%) values (incidence rate ratio = 1.001). Multiparous cows in herds BoHV-1 bulk milk antibody positive recorded a reduction in milk yield per cow per year of 250.9 L in the multivariable linear model. Milk fat and protein yields were also affected by herd BoHV-1 status, again highlighting sub-optimal milk production in BoHV-1 bulk milk-positive herds. The current study has highlighted an economical method of investigating losses due to endemic infection using repeated bulk milk sampling over a single lactation. These data can contribute to analyzing the cost-benefit of applying BoHV-1 control strategies both on farm and at a national level.