Insights on the effects of antimicrobial and heavy metal usage on the antimicrobial resistance profiles of pigs based on culture-independent studies
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CitationEkhlas, D., Argüello, H., Leonard, F.C. et al. Insights on the effects of antimicrobial and heavy metal usage on the antimicrobial resistance profiles of pigs based on culture-independent studies. Vet Res 54, 14 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-023-01143-3
AbstractAntimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human, animal, and environmental health. In pig production, antimicrobials and heavy metals such as zinc oxide are commonly used for treatment and prevention of disease. Nevertheless, the effects of antimicrobials and heavy metals on the porcine resistome composition and the factors influencing this resistance profile are not fully understood. Advances in technologies to determine the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in diverse sample types have enabled a more complete understanding of the resistome and the factors which influence its composition. The aim of this review is to provide a greater understanding of the influence of antimicrobial and heavy metal usage on the development and transmission of antimicrobial resistance on pig farms. Furthermore, this review aims to identify additional factors that can affect the porcine resistome. Relevant literature that used high-throughput sequencing or quantitative PCR methods to examine links between antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial and heavy metal use was identified using a systematic approach with PubMed (NCBI), Scopus (Elsevier), and Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics) databases. In total, 247 unique records were found and 28 publications were identified as eligible for inclusion in this review. Based on these, there is clear evidence that antimicrobial and heavy metal use are positively linked with antimicrobial resistance in pigs. Moreover, associations of genes conferring antimicrobial resistance with mobile genetic elements, the microbiome, and the virome were reported, which were further influenced by the host, the environment, or the treatment itself.
FunderTeagasc Walsh Scholarship Scheme; Spanish Ministry of Education
Grant Number2018027; BEAGAL-18–106