Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorNag, Rajat
dc.contributor.authorRussell, Lauren
dc.contributor.authorNolan, Stephen
dc.contributor.authorAuer, Agathe
dc.contributor.authorMarkey, Bryan K.
dc.contributor.authorWhyte, Paul
dc.contributor.authorO'Flaherty, Vincent
dc.contributor.authorBolton, Declan
dc.contributor.authorFenton, Owen
dc.contributor.authorRichards, Karl G.
dc.contributor.authorCummins, Enda
dc.identifier.citationRajat Nag, Lauren Russell, Stephen Nolan, Agathe Auer, Bryan K. Markey, Paul Whyte, Vincent O'Flaherty, Declan Bolton, Owen Fenton, Karl G. Richards, Enda Cummins, Quantitative microbial risk assessment associated with ready-to-eat salads following the application of farmyard manure and slurry or anaerobic digestate to arable lands, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 806, Part 3, 2022, 151227, ISSN 0048-9697,
dc.description.abstractFarmyard manure and slurry (FYM&S) and anaerobic digestate are potentially valuable soil conditioners providing important nutrients for plant development and growth. However, these organic fertilisers may pose a microbial health risk to humans. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model was developed to investigate the potential human exposure to pathogens following the application of FYM&S and digestate to agricultural land. The farm-to-fork probabilistic model investigated the fate of microbial indicators (total coliforms and enterococci) and foodborne pathogens in the soil with potential contamination of ready-to-eat salads (RTEs) at the point of human consumption. The processes examined included pathogen inactivation during mesophilic anaerobic digestion (M-AD), post-AD pasteurisation, storage, dilution while spreading, decay in soil, post-harvest washing processes, and finally, the potential growth of the pathogen during refrigeration/storage at the retail level in the Irish context. The QMRA highlighted a very low annual probability of risk (Pannual) due to Clostridium perfringens, norovirus, and Salmonella Newport across all scenarios. Mycobacterium avium may result in a very high mean Pannual for the application of raw FYM&S, while Cryptosporidium parvum and pathogenic E. coli showed high Pannual, and Listeria monocytogenes displayed moderate Pannual for raw FYM&S application. The use of AD reduces this risk; however, pasteurisation reduces the Pannual to an even greater extent posing a very low risk. An overall sensitivity analysis revealed that mesophilic-AD's inactivation effect is the most sensitive parameter of the QMRA, followed by storage and the decay on the field (all negatively correlated to risk estimate). The information generated from this model can help to inform guidelines for policymakers on the maximum permissible indicator or pathogen contamination levels in the digestate. The QMRA can also provide the AD industry with a safety assessment of pathogenic organisms resulting from the digestion of FYM&S.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesScience of the total environment;Vol 806
dc.rights© 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International*
dc.subjectBiogas plantsen_US
dc.subjectAnaerobic digestateen_US
dc.subjectFood pathogensen_US
dc.subjectHuman exposureen_US
dc.subjectReady-to-eat foodsen_US
dc.subjectQuantitative microbial risk assessmenten_US
dc.titleQuantitative microbial risk assessment associated with ready-to-eat salads following the application of farmyard manure and slurry or anaerobic digestate to arable landsen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorDepartment of Agriculture, Food and the Marineen_US
dc.source.journaltitleScience of The Total Environment

Files in this item

Quantitative-microbial-risk-as ...
main article

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

© 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.