Diagnosis of respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves using sequential thoracic ultrasonography and clinical respiratory scoring: Temporal transitions and association with growth rates
Ryan, Eoin G.
Hayes, Ciara J.
Mee, John F.
McAloon, Conor G.
clinical respiratory score
average daily gain
MetadataShow full item record
StatisticsDisplay Item Statistics
CitationVictoria Rhodes, Eoin G. Ryan, Ciara J. Hayes, Catherine McAloon, Luke O'Grady, Seamus Hoey, John F. Mee, Bart Pardon, Bernadette Earley, Conor G. McAloon, Diagnosis of respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves using sequential thoracic ultrasonography and clinical respiratory scoring: Temporal transitions and association with growth rates, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 104, Issue 10, 2021, Pages 11165-11175, ISSN 0022-0302, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2021-20207.
AbstractBovine respiratory disease (BRD) in dairy calves is a multifactorial condition, involving environmental, host, and pathogen factors. Thoracic ultrasound scoring (TUS) has recently been validated as an accurate method of detecting BRD-related lung pathology in dairy calves. Previous studies investigating the use of TUS in preweaned dairy calves have largely been based on cross-sectional data from all-year production systems. The objectives of this longitudinal observational study were to characterize the temporal transitions in TUS scores in dairy calves from pasture-based, seasonal-calving herds using sequential examinations during the preweaning period, and to investigate the relationship between the presence and temporal pattern of BRD, diagnosed by TUS or clinical respiratory scoring (CRS), and average daily gain (ADG). In spring of 2019, 317 preweaned calves from 7 commercial dairy farms were recruited at less than 4 wk old (ranging from 1–27 d of age). Each farm was examined on at least 3 occasions at 20- to 28-d intervals and housed indoors in group or individual pens. At each visit TUS scores, CRS scores based on the University of Wisconsin Calf Respiratory Score Chart (https://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/fapm/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/calf_respiratory_scoring_chart.pdf), and live weight using a dairy breed–specific weigh band were recorded. All data were recorded by the same 2 veterinarians over the course of the study. The final data set consisted of 966 TUS and CRS scores collected from 317 calves over a period of approximately 6 wk from 7 farms. The data were analyzed in multivariable, mixed effects, linear regression models, with separate models constructed for TUS and CRS scores. Random effects (intercepts) were included for calf, farm, and visit week. Additionally, a random slope was included for age at sampling by farm. Median farm TUS score ranged from 0 to 2.5 over the 3 visits (possible range: 0–5). The percentage of calves with a TUS score ≥3 (consolidation of the full thickness of 1 lung lobe), on each farm ranged from 0 to 50%. The median CRS in calves on individual farms ranged from 1 to 3 over the 3 visits (possible range: 0–12). The percentage of calves on each farm with a CRS score ≥5 (possible range: 0–12) ranged from 0 to 26%. The TUS and CRS scores were weakly correlated. The TUS was associated with reduced ADG. Calves with TUS scores ≥3 grew at 126 g/d less than unaffected calves over the 3-wk period before examination. The predicted effect on ADG was dependent on the age and duration over which the animal was affected. Calves affected later (i.e., between visits 2 and 3) had lower predicted weights at 63 d compared with calves with increased TUS scores earlier in the study period. Calves with a TUS score ≥3 at each of the 3 sampling points had the lowest weight at 63 d of age. There was no association of CRS with ADG. This study showed that in contrast to CRS, higher TUS scores are associated with lower ADG, with weight loss being more pronounced in chronic cases.
FunderDairy Research Ireland
Grant NumberGrant No. R19395
The following license files are associated with this item:
- Creative Commons
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2021 American Dairy Science Association®.