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dc.contributor.authorNag, Rajat
dc.contributor.authorMarkey, Bryan K.
dc.contributor.authorWhyte, Paul
dc.contributor.authorO'Flaherty, Vincent
dc.contributor.authorBolton, Declan
dc.contributor.authorFenton, Owen
dc.contributor.authorRichards, Karl G.
dc.contributor.authorCummins, Enda
dc.identifier.citationRajat Nag, Bryan K. Markey, Paul Whyte, Vincent O'Flaherty, Declan Bolton, Owen Fenton, Karl G. Richards, Enda Cummins, A Bayesian inference approach to quantify average pathogen loads in farmyard manure and slurry using open-source Irish datasets, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 786, 2021, 147474, ISSN 0048-9697,
dc.description.abstractFarm-to-fork quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA) typically start with a preliminary estimate of initial concentration (Cinitial) of microorganism loading at farm level, consisting of an initial estimate of prevalence (P) and the resulting pathogen levels in animal faeces. An average estimation of the initial concentration of pathogens can be achieved by combining P estimates in animal populations and the levels of pathogens in colonised animals' faeces and resulting cumulative levels in herd farmyard manure and slurry (FYM&S). In the present study, 14 years of data were collated and assessed using a Bayesian inference loop to assess the likely P of pathogens. In this regard, historical and current survey data exists on P estimates for a number of pathogens, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., Campylobacter spp., pathogenic E. coli, and Listeria monocytogenes in several species (cattle, pigs, and sheep) in Ireland. The results revealed that Cryptosporidium spp. has potentially the highest mean P (Pmean) (25.93%), followed by MAP (15.68%) and Campylobacter spp. (8.80%) for cattle. The Pmean of E. coli is highest (7.42%) in pigs, while the Pmean of Clostridium spp. in sheep was estimated to be 7.94%. Cinitial for Cryptosporidium spp., MAP., Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., and Campylobacter spp. in cattle faeces were derived with an average of 2.69, 4.38, 4.24, 3.46, and 3.84 log10 MPN g −1, respectively. Average Cinitial of Cryptosporidium spp., Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., and E. coli in pig slurry was estimated as 1.27, 3.12, 3.02, and 4.48 log10 MPN g −1, respectively. It was only possible to calculate the average Cinitial of Listeria monocytogenes in sheep manure as 1.86 log10 MPN g −1. This study creates a basis for future farm-to-fork risk assessment models to base initial pathogen loading values for animal faeces and enhance risk assessment efforts.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesScience of the total environment;Vol 786
dc.rights© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International*
dc.subjectBayesian inferenceen_US
dc.subjectAnimal manureen_US
dc.subjectPathogen loaden_US
dc.subjectExposure assessmenten_US
dc.subjectRisk Assessment Approachen_US
dc.titleA Bayesian inference approach to quantify average pathogen loads in farmyard manure and slurry using open-source Irish datasetsen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorDepartment of Agriculture, Food and the Marineen_US
dc.source.journaltitleScience of The Total Environment

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