• Quantitative trait loci associated with different polar metabolites in perennial ryegrass - providing scope for breeding towards increasing certain polar metabolites

      Foito, Alexandre; Hackett, Christine A; Stewart, Derek; Velmurugan, Janaki; Milbourne, Dan; Byrne, Stephen L.; Barth, Susanne; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; RSF 06–346 (Biomed Central, 10/10/2017)
      Background Recent advances in the mapping of biochemical traits have been reported in Lolium perenne. Although the mapped traits, including individual sugars and fatty acids, contribute greatly towards ruminant productivity, organic acids and amino acids have been largely understudied despite their influence on the ruminal microbiome. Results In this study, we used a targeted gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach to profile the levels of 25 polar metabolites from different classes (sugars, amino acids, phenolic acids, organic acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds) present in a L. perenne F2 population consisting of 325 individuals. A quantitative trait (QTL) mapping approach was applied and successfully identified QTLs regulating seven of those polar metabolites (L-serine, L-leucine, glucose, fructose, myo-inositol, citric acid and 2, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid).Two QTL mapping approaches were carried out using SNP markers on about half of the population only and an imputation approach using SNP and DArT markers on the entire population. The imputation approach confirmed the four QTLs found in the SNP-only analysis and identified a further seven QTLs. Conclusions These results highlight the potential of utilising molecular assisted breeding in perennial ryegrass to modulate a range of biochemical quality traits with downstream effects in livestock productivity and ruminal digestion.
    • Reaffirmation of known major genes and the identification of novel candidate genes associated with carcass-related metrics based on whole genome sequence within a large multi-breed cattle population

      Purfield, D. C; Evans, R. D; Berry, Donagh; European Union; Science Foundation Ireland; 727213; 14/IA/2576; 16/RC/3835 (Biomed Central, 2019-09-18)
      Background The high narrow sense heritability of carcass traits suggests that the underlying additive genetic potential of an individual should be strongly correlated with both animal carcass quality and quantity, and therefore, by extension, carcass value. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to detect genomic regions associated with three carcass traits, namely carcass weight, conformation and fat cover, using imputed whole genome sequence in 28,470 dairy and beef sires from six breeds with a total of 2,199,926 phenotyped progeny. Results Major genes previously associated with carcass performance were identified, as well as several putative novel candidate genes that likely operate both within and across breeds. The role of MSTN in carcass performance was re-affirmed with the segregating Q204X mutation explaining 1.21, 1.11 and 5.95% of the genetic variance in carcass weight, fat and conformation, respectively in the Charolais population. In addition, a genomic region on BTA6 encompassing the NCAPG/LCORL locus, which is a known candidate locus associated with body size, was associated with carcass weight in Angus, Charolais and Limousin. Novel candidate genes identified included ZFAT in Angus, and SLC40A1 and the olfactory gene cluster on BTA15 in Charolais. Although the majority of associations were breed specific, associations that operated across breeds included SORCS1 on BTA26, MCTP2 on BTA21 and ARL15 on BTA20; these are of particular interest due to their potential informativeness in across-breed genomic evaluations. Genomic regions affecting all three carcass traits were identified in each of the breeds, although these were mainly concentrated on BTA2 and BTA6, surrounding MSTN and NCAPG/LCORL, respectively. This suggests that although major genes may be associated with all three carcass traits, the majority of genes containing significant variants (unadjusted p-value < 10− 4) may be trait specific associations of small effect. Conclusions Although plausible novel candidate genes were identified, the proportion of variance explained by these candidates was minimal thus reaffirming that while carcass performance may be affected by major genes in the form of MSTN and NCAPG/LCORL, the majority of variance is attributed to the additive (and possibly multiplicative) effect of many polymorphisms of small effect.