• Molecular-genetic characterization of human parvovirus B19 prevalent in Kerala State, India

      Seetha, Dayakar; Pillai, Heera R; Nori, Sai R C; Kalpathodi, Sanu G; Thulasi, Vineetha P; Nair, Radhakrishnan R; Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum. (Biomed Central, 2021-05-05)
      Background Human parvovirus B19V is a DNA virus, and a member of the family Parvoviridae, that causes various clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to persistent infection that is associated with different autoimmune diseases. The parvovirus B19 evolves with a very high mutation rate that is closer to those of existing RNA viruses. Globally circulating B19V is currently classified into three genotypes, but their distribution is not spatially and temporally correlated. Except for a few recent reports on B19V entry into the human host and its genetic diversity, there is a lack of sufficient studies on this virus from distinct geographical locations and no clear understanding of its evolution has been documented. Methods To better understand the evolution of the Human parvo B19V virus from India's southern part, a geographically distinct location with no reports of B19V genomes, we have screened for B19V in 456 suspected cases using VP1/2 surface marker genes, and its characteristics were studied in detail. Amongst 456 clinically suspected B19V samples, 7.2% (33/456) were found positive by nested PCR (nPCR) were subsequently validated by real-time PCR, Sanger sequencing, and metagenome analysis. Results Human parvovirus B19 infection was shown among 33 of 456 patients when tested by nPCR; 30 among these were also positive by qPCR and were subsequently confirmed by sequencing 75% nPCR positive samples and 76% qPCR positive samples were from patients with age. ≥ 50 years respectively (Additional file 1: Table S1). The complete VP1/2 gene assembly from the South Indian strain showed three novel mutations (T122A, V128I, I283V), which might significantly impact the stability and virulence of the B19V virus circulating in this part of the world. These mutations might be crucial for its adaptive evolutionary strategies facilitating the spread and infectivity potential of the virus. In maximum likelihood phylogeny of VP1/2 sequences, the South Indian B19V strain forms a separate clade closer to the existing genotype two strains circulating worldwide. Conclusion Our study contributes to a better understanding of the human parvovirus's genetic and evolutionary characteristics in South India. Also, it highlights the possibility that a positive selection pressure acting on VP1/2 could increase the survival and replication capabilities of the viruses.