Review: Semen handling, time of insemination and insemination technique in cattle
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CitationM.G. Diskin, Review: Semen handling, time of insemination and insemination technique in cattle, Animal, Volume 12, Supplement 1, 2018, Pages s75-s84, ISSN 1751-7311, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731118000952.
AbstractIn cattle artificial insemination plays not only a vital role in the successful establishment of pregnancy, which is a prerequisite for initiation of the subsequent lactation, but also in accelerating genetic improvement and facilitating the distribution of semen from genetically elite sires. The latter has been greatly facilitated by the ability to successfully cryopreserve semen. The objective of an insemination is to ensure that there is an adequate reservoir of competent, capacitated, motile sperm in the caudal region of the oviductal isthmus, the site of the main sperm reservoir in the cow, at the time of ovulation to ensure fertilisation. Handling of semen, particularly the 0.25 ml straw, is critically important. Thawed semen needs to be protected from cold and heat shocks and inseminated within 6 to 8 min of thawing. Uterine horn insemination give a modest improvement in conceptions rates particularly in situations where conception rates are low following uterine body inseminations. Most of the studies that evaluated heterospermic insemination were conducted on fresh semen only, and many lacked adequate replication. Consequently, it is difficult to deduce if there are real benefits from using heterospermic semen. While the interval from oestrous onset to time of ovulation would appear to be similar for cows and heifers at about 28 h there is huge variation (standard deviations of 5 to 6 h) around this average. While best conception rates are achieved when cows are inseminated from mid oestrus to a few hours after the onset of oestrus, this is difficult to achieve in practice. There is emerging evidence that having one insemination time, when all cows requiring insemination in the herd on that day are inseminated, does not compromise fertility provided insemination technique is good and the semen used is of high fertility.
FunderScience Foundation Ireland
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