• Grain yield reductions in spring barley due to barley yellow dwarf virus and aphid feeding

      Kennedy, T.F.; Connery, J. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      The occurrence and control of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in spring barley was investigated, at Oak Park, in the periods 1990 to 1993 and 1996 to 2001. Barley was sown in March and April and treated with either organophosphorous or pyrethroid aphicide at various plant growth stages. The most common aphid encountered was Sitobion avenae and MAV the most common strain of BYDV. In untreated plots of March- and April-sown barley, 0.85% and 5.9%, respectively, of tillers had virus symptoms. Best control of symptoms, from a single aphicide in March- and April-sown crops, was a treatment at growth stage (g.s.) 14. This treatment contributed 77% of the reduction in symptoms recorded for multiple treatments in April-sown plots. The reduction in grain yield due to high, moderate and low BYDV infection in April-sown barley was 1.1 t/ha (20%), 0.65 t/ha (10%) and 0.36 t/ha (7%), respectively. In Marchsown barley, pyrethroid aphicide applied at g.s. 14 significantly improved grain yield by 0.26 t/ha (4%). In the season having the most severe BYDV outbreak, a pyrethroid aphicide at g.s. 14 was best in controlling yield loss. Pyrethroid aphicide gave better control of symptoms and better yields than organophosphorous aphicide. The estimated yield reductions in untreated April-sown barley due to feeding damage by Sitobion avenae was 0.71 t/ha and 0.83 t/ha (10.6% and 11.3%) in the two seasons in which this aphid was plentiful. In the three seasons in which Metopolophium dirhodum was recorded the estimated yield reductions were 0.32 t/ha, 0.48 t/ha and 0.43 t/ha (5.2%, 5.6% and 5.7%).