The aim of the Teagasc Crops, Environment and Land Use Programme is to develop and transfer cost-effective crop production systems, along with evidence-based knowledge to support and underpin the development of an environmentally sustainable, competitive and profitable agri-food sector.

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  • Irish dairy and drystock farmers’ attitudes and perceptions to planting trees and adopting agroforestry practices on their land

    Irwin, Rachel; Dhubháin, Áine Ní; Short, Ian; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme; 2020026 (Elsevier BV, 2022-12)
    Due to the intensification of agriculture and transition to monoculture plantations, vast areas of native woodland have been lost from the Irish landscape. As these trees gradually vanished from agricultural land, the use of traditional, ancient agroforestry practices dwindled. Currently, forestry cover in Ireland is 25% lower than the European average, with the rate of afforestation remaining critically low. Agroforestry has been cited as a means to increase forestry cover in Ireland while continuing to produce viable high quality agricultural products on the same parcel of land. However, even with a range of afforestation schemes available, farmers exhibit an evident reluctance to adopt agroforestry. This research aimed to examine the main attitudes and perceptions of Irish dairy and drystock farmers to planting trees on their land and adopting agroforestry practices. The majority of farmers included within the dataset exhibited a positive attitude towards trees on their farms, with the main negative behavioural beliefs relating to impacts on pasture. Family and Teagasc (The Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority) are the highest cited influential bodies while the majority of farmers exhibit high perceived behavioural control. Intention rates to plant trees are high, albeit mainly on marginal areas of the farm. Agroforestry knowledge is low in Ireland with the word itself eliciting negative responses amongst the farming community. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of the main attitudes, influential bodies and barriers that affect agroforestry uptake in Ireland.
  • A novel hybrid coagulation-constructed wetland system for the treatment of dairy wastewater

    Mohamed, A.Y.A.; Siggins, A.; Healy, M.G.; Ó hUallacháin, Daire; Fenton, Owen; Tuohy, P.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship; RMIS-0386 (Elsevier, 2022-07-29)
    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a cost-effective and sustainable treatment technology that may be used on farms to treat dairy wastewater (DWW). However, CWs require a large area for optimal treatment and have poor long-term phosphorus removal. To overcome these limitations, this study uses a novel, pilot-scale coagulation-sedimentation process prior to loading CWs with DWW. This hybrid system, which was operated on an Irish farm over an entire milking season, performed well at higher hydraulic loading rates than conventional CWs, and obtained removal efficiencies ≥99 % for all measured water quality parameters (chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and phosphorus, total suspended solids and turbidity), which complied with EU directives concerning urban wastewater treatment. Overall, the hybrid coagulation-CW is a promising technology that requires a smaller area than conventional CWs and minimal operator input, and produces high effluent quality.
  • The role of colloids and other fractions in the below-ground delivery of phosphorus from agricultural hillslopes to streams

    Fresne, Maëlle; Jordan, Phil; Daly, Karen; Fenton, Owen; Mellander, Per-Erik; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship programme (Elsevier, 2022-01-31)
    Colloids can be important for facilitated transfer of phosphorus (P) to groundwater (GW) and contribute to elevated P concentrations later delivered to surface water. To assess the role of colloidal P and other P fractions in delivery processes via below-ground pathways, this study investigated the influence of catchment and flow event characteristics on particulate (>450 nm), medium-sized colloidal (200–450 nm) and fine (<200 nm) P fractions in two agricultural hillslopes (TG, TA). Total and dissolved P fractions and their derivatives were also monitored. Samples in both stream and GW were taken weekly during baseflow conditions and every 2 h during storm conditions. Higher frequency monitoring of streamflow was also conducted to delineate hydrological flowpaths and determine P loads and hysteresis processes. Results indicated that during baseflow fine P was dominant in the streams (80 to 100 % of total P) and in shallow GW in TA (83 to 96 %) whereas in TG shallow GW was dominated by PP (55 to 96 %) possibly due to colloidal Fe-P complexes. Similarly, in TG shallow GW was dominated by PP (79 to 81 %) during high flow events. During a larger flow event (within the period of land fertilization) the quickflow pathway (24 % of total flow) delivered 3.2 g ha−1 of PP which was dominant in the stream (44 to 68 %). A smaller flow event (within the period of prohibited land fertilization) facilitated delivery of P via deeper baseflow pathways (87 % of total flow) as fine reactive P (1.3 g ha−1), also dominant in the stream (73 to 78 %). The research indicated a very limited presence of medium-sized colloidal P but a large presence of fine P that may contribute to elevating P concentrations above environmental thresholds. Further work should constrain the controlling factors for colloidal P presence/absence and also on the extent and speciation of coarser and finer fractions in the hillslope to stream continuum.
  • Quantifying MCPA load pathways at catchment scale using high temporal resolution data

    Atcheson, Kevin; Mellander, Per-Erik; Cassidy, Rachel; Cook, Sally; Floyd, Stewart; McRoberts, Colin; Morton, Phoebe A.; Jordan, Phil; Department for the Economy (Northern Ireland); European Union (Elsevier, 2022-07-15)
    Detection of the agricultural acid herbicide MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) in drinking water source catchments is of growing concern, with economic and environmental implications for water utilities and wider ecosystem services. MCPA is poorly adsorbed to soil and highly mobile in water, but hydrological pathway processes are relatively unknown at the catchment scale and limited by coarse resolution data. This understanding is required to target mitigation measures and to provide a framework to monitor their effectiveness. To address this knowledge gap, this study reports findings from river discharge and synchronous MCPA concentration datasets (continuous 7 hour and with additional hourly sampling during storm events) collected over a 7 month herbicide spraying season. The study was undertaken in a surface (source) water catchment (384 km2—of which 154 km2 is agricultural land use) in the cross-border area of Ireland. Combined into loads, and using two pathway separation techniques, the MCPA data were apportioned into event and baseload components and the former was further separated to quantify a quickflow (QF) and other event pathways. Based on the 7 hourly dataset, 85.2 kg (0.22 kg km−2 by catchment area, or 0.55 kg km−2 by agricultural area) of MCPA was exported from the catchment in 7 months. Of this load, 87.7 % was transported via event flow pathways with 72.0 % transported via surface dominated (QF) pathways. Approximately 12 % of the MCPA load was transported via deep baseflows, indicating a persistence in this delayed pathway, and this was the primary pathway condition monitored in a weekly regulatory sampling programme. However, overall, the data indicated a dominant acute, storm dependent process of incidental MCPA loss during the spraying season. Reducing use and/or implementing extensive surface pathway disconnection measures are the mitigation options with greatest potential, the success of which can only be assessed using high temporal resolution monitoring techniques.
  • Grassland legacy effects on yield of a follow-on crop in rotation strongly influenced by legume proportion and moderately by drought

    Grange, Guylain; Brophy, Caroline; Finn, John; Science Foundation Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship; 19/FFP/6888 (Elsevier, 2022-08-31)
    We investigated the degree to which plant species diversity, drought and fertiliser level in a grassland ley can affect performance of a follow-on crop in a rotation. Grassland species and functional group diversity (grasses, legumes and herbs) were manipulated from monocultures to six-species mixtures in the grassland ley phase. A simulated two-month summer drought treatment was compared to a ‘rainfed’ control. Plots received 150 kg ha−1 yr−1 of nitrogen (N) fertiliser; additional replicates of L. perenne monoculture received 300 kg ha−1 yr−1 of N fertiliser. After two years, grassland communities were terminated, and each plot reseeded with an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) model crop; its yield indicated the relative legacy effect of the preceding treatments (plant diversity, drought, N input). There was a modest but constant negative effect of drought on dry matter (−0.36 ± 0.091 t ha−1) and nitrogen yield (DMY and NY respectively) of the subsequent crop of L. multiflorum, across all plant communities. There were strong differences among the identity effects of the six former grassland species on DMY and NY of L. multiflorum. Legume species had the strongest effects on DMY of L. multiflorum (6.09 t ha−1 for the former T. pratense monoculture and 6.54 t ha−1 for T. repens). The lowest crop yield was from the former low-diversity high-input replicates (4.16 t ha−1 for former L. perenne monoculture with 300 kg ha−1 yr−1). There was no evidence that interspecific interactions in the grassland phase affected yield of the follow-on crop. Thus, the legacy effect of grassland mixtures was estimated by the identities and proportions of the species sown in the mixture. Similar patterns were obtained for NY. High-diversity, low-input grassland yielded more DMY and NY than low-diversity, high-input grassland (across both ley and follow-on crop phases). However, a legume proportion in the grassland ley of at least 33% is required to achieve high forage and crop performance in a grassland-crop rotation.
  • Biomass and nutrient dynamics of major green tides in Ireland: Implications for biomonitoring

    Bermejo, Ricardo; Golden, Nessa; Schrofner, Elena; Knöller, Kay; Fenton, Owen; Serrão, Ester; Morrison, Liam; Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland; Department of Economy, Knowledge, Business and University of the Regional Government of Andalusia; 2014-2020 ERDF Operational Programme; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-02-28)
    The control of macroalgal bloom development is central for protecting estuarine ecosystems. The identification of the nutrients limiting the development of macroalgal blooms, and their most likely sources is crucial for management strategies. Three Irish estuaries (Argideen, Clonakilty and Tolka) affected by green tides were monitored from June 2016 to August 2017. During each sampling occasion, biomass abundances, tissue N and P contents, and δ15N were determined for tubular and laminar morphologies of Ulva. All estuaries showed maximum biomass during summer and minimum during winter. Tissue nutrient contents revealed P rather than N limitation. The δ15N during the peak bloom indicated agriculture as the most likely source of nitrogen in the Argideen and Clonakilty, and urban wastewaters in the Tolka. No differences in the δ15N, and the tissue nutrients content were observed between morphologies. The period between May and July is most suitable for bioassessment of green tides.
  • Using a multi-dimensional approach for catchment scale herbicide pollution assessments.

    Khan, Majid Ali; Costa, Fabiola Barros; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; Fennell, Chris; Mellander, Per-Erik; European Union; 727450 (Elsevier, 2020-07-25)
    Worldwide herbicide use in agriculture, whilst safeguarding yields also presents water quality issues. Controlling factors in agricultural catchments include both static and dynamic parameters. The present study investigated the occurrence of herbicides in streams and groundwater in two meso-scale catchments with contrasting flow controls and agricultural landuse (grassland and arable land). Using a multi-dimensional approach, streams were monitored from November 2018 to November 2019 using Chemcatcher® passive sampling devices and groundwater was sampled in 95 private drinking water wells. The concentrations of herbicides were larger in the stream of the Grassland catchment (8.9-472.6 ng L-1) dominated by poorly drained soils than in the Arable catchment (0.9-169.1 ng L-1) dominated by well-drained soils. Incidental losses of herbicides during time of application and low flows in summer caused concentrations of MCPA, Fluroxypyr, Trichlorpyr, Clopyralid and Mecoprop to exceeded the European Union (EU) drinking water standard due to a lack of dilution. Herbicides were present in the stream throughout the year and the total mass load was higher in winter flows, suggesting a persistence of primary chemical residues in soil and sub-surface environments and restricted degradation. Losses of herbicides to the streams were source limited and influenced by hydrological conditions. Herbicides were detected in 38% of surveyed drinking water wells. While most areas had concentrations below the EU drinking water standard some areas with well-drained soils in the Grassland catchment, had concentrations exceeding recommendations. Individual wells had concentrations of Clopyralid (619 ng L-1) and Trichlorpyr (650 ng L-1). Despite the study areas not usually associated with herbicide pollution, and annual mass loads being comparatively low, many herbicides were present in both surface and groundwater, sometimes above the recommendations for drinking water. This whole catchment assessment provides a basis to develop collaborative measures to mitigate pollution of water by herbicides.
  • Exposure of Agaricus bisporus to Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum leads to growth inhibition and induction of an oxidative stress response

    Kosanovic, Dejana; Grogan, Helen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Irish Research Council; GOIPD/2018/115 (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
    Green mould disease of mushroom, Agaricus bisporus,is caused by Trichodermaspecies and can result in substantial crop losses.Label free proteomic analysis of changes in the abundance of A. bisporusproteins following exposure to T. aggressivumsupernatantin vitroindicated increased abundance of proteins associated with an oxidative stress response (zinc ion binding (+6.6 fold); peroxidase activity (5.3-fold); carboxylic ester hydrolase (+2.4 fold); dipeptidase (+3.2 fold); [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly (+3.3 fold)). Proteins that decreased in relative abundance were associated with growth: structural constituent of ribosome, translation (-12 fold), deadenylation-dependent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mRNA (-3.4 fold), and small GTPase mediated signal transduction (-2.6 fold). In vivoanalysis revealed that 10-4 T. aggressivuminoculum decreased the mushroom yield by 29% to 56% and 10-3 T. aggressivuminoculum decreased the mushroom yield by 68% to 100%. Proteins that increased in abundance in A. bisporusin vivofollowing exposure to T. aggressivumindicated an oxidative stress response and included proteins with pyruvate kinase activity (+2.6 fold) and hydrolase activity (+2.1 fold)). The results indicate that exposure of A. bisporusmycelium to T. aggressivum in vitroand in vivoresulted in an oxidative stress response and reduction in growth.
  • An investigation of anticoccidial veterinary drugs as emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

    Mooney, D.; Richards, K.G.; Danaher, M.; Grant, J.; Gill, L.; Mellander, P.-E.; Coxon, C.E.; Science Foundation Ireland; European Regional Development Fund; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-12)
    Intensification of the food production system to meet increased global demand for food has led to veterinary pharmaceuticals becoming a critical component in animal husbandry. Anticoccidials are a group of veterinary products used to control coccidiosis in food-producing animals, with primary prophylactic use in poultry production. Excretion in manure and subsequent land-spreading provides a potential pathway to groundwater. Information on the fate and occurrence of these compounds in groundwater is scant, therefore these substances are potential emerging organic contaminants of concern. A study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of anticoccidial compounds in groundwater throughout the Republic of Ireland. Twenty-six anticoccidials (6 ionophores and 20 synthetic anticoccidials) were analysed at 109 sites (63 boreholes and 46 springs) during November and December 2018. Sites were categorised and selected based on the following source and pathway factors: (a) the presence/absence of poultry activity (b) predominant aquifer category and (c) predominant groundwater vulnerability, within the zone of contribution (ZOC) for each site. Seven anticoccidials, including four ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin and salinomycin) and three synthetic anticoccidials (amprolium, diclazuril and nicarbazin), were detected at 24% of sites at concentrations ranging from 1 to 386 ng L−1. Monensin and amprolium were the two most frequently detected compounds, detected at 15% and 7% of sites, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis has shown that source factors are the most significant drivers of the occurrence of anticoccidials, with no definitive relationships between occurrence and pathway factors. The study found that the detection of anticoccidial compounds is 6.5 times more likely when poultry activity is present within the ZOC of a sampling point, compared to the absence of poultry activity. This work presents the first detections of these contaminants in Irish groundwater and it contributes to broadening our understanding of the environmental occurrence and fate of anticoccidial veterinary products.
  • Increasing Tree Cover on Irish Dairy and Drystock Farms

    Irwin, Rachel; Short, Ian; Ní Dhubháin, Áine (Dawn Media, 2022)
    What are the main barriers and perceptions that impede agroforestry uptake?
  • The distribution, type, popularity, size and availability of river-run gravel and crushed stone for use in land drainage systems and their suitability for mineral soils in Ireland

    Byrne, I.; Healy, M. G.; Fenton, Owen; Tuohy, P. (Teagasc, 2022-06-24)
    The performance of land drainage systems installed in mineral soils in Ireland is highly variable, and is dependent on, amongst other factors, the quality and suitability of the aggregate used. In Ireland, aggregate for land drainage systems is usually river-run gravel and crushed stone. This study classified the distribution, type, popularity, size and availability of aggregates for land drainage systems throughout Ireland and quantified their suitability for use in mineral soils. Eighty-six quarries were surveyed. Limestone and river-run gravel (80% of lithologies) are widespread throughout the country. The quarry aggregate sizes (“Q sizes”), reported by the quarries as either a single size, that is, “50 mm”, or a graded size, that is, 20–40 mm, were variable, changed across lithology and region and were, in most cases, larger than what is currently recommended. A particle size distribution analysis of 74 samples from 62 quarries showed that individual Q sizes increased in variability with increasing aggregate size. In some regions, the aggregate sold does not meet current national regulations, which specify an aggregate size ranging from 10 to 40 mm. The suitability of these aggregates for drainage in five soils of different textures was compared using three established design criteria. It was found that the aggregate in use is too large for heavy soil textures and is therefore unsuitable as drainage envelope material. Guidance for contractors, farmers and quarry owners will be required, and investment may be needed by quarries to produce aggregate that satisfies design criteria. An aggregate size, based on one or a combination of established aggregate design criteria, where an analysis of the soil texture is conducted and an appropriate aggregate is chosen based off its 15% passing size, is required.
  • Datafile: Grassland legacy effects on yield of a follow-on crop in rotation strongly influenced by legume proportion and moderately by drought

    Grange, Guylain; Brophy, Caroline; Finn, John (2022)
    Dataset contains the dry matter and nitrogen yield responses of a Lolium multiflorum crop (summed across harvests). The L. multiflorum crop was sown on plots comprising grassland communities of one to six species (and one to three functional groups) that were growing for the previous two years. An experimental summer drought was implemented on half of each plot during the grassland phase but not the crop phase. Data were collected in Wexford, Republic of Ireland (52.299584, -6.506458) in 2020.
  • Data file: A landscape classification map of Ireland and its potential use in national land use monitoring.

    Carlier, J.; Doyle, M.; Finn, John; Ó hUallacháin, D.; Moran, J.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 2019R425 (Elsevier, 2021)
    This data file provides the map (png file) and GIS data associated with a publication in the Journal of Environmental Management titled 'A landscape classification map of Ireland and its potential use in national land use monitoring.'
  • An outline of achievements in selected areas of forest research in Ireland 1960–2021

    Farrelly, Niall; Nemesio Gorriz, Miguel; Short, Ian; Ní Dhubháin, Á.; Tobin, B.; O’Hanlon, R.; Earl, R.; McCullagh, A.; O’Donoghue, C.; Ryan, M. (Teagasc, 2022-03-01)
    In this paper, we provide an overview of achievements in forest research in Ireland carried out by various agencies over the past 60 yr. Many of the outcomes of the research have ensured that policy and practice are well-founded, and many of the research results form the basis of current forest standards and practice. Forest research has, and will continue to have, a significant role in national policy development and international reporting commitments. The achievement of future goals and targets is increasingly dependent on the maintenance of the goods and services that forests provide; these can be enhanced through the establishment of new forests and by appropriate management of the resource (e.g. The EU Green Deal and EU Forest Strategy). We outline the current state of knowledge which can be used to inform afforestation goals and the importance of tree improvement, forest management and forest protection to improve competitiveness and sustainability. Research into forestry and carbon provides a focus on the opportunities and challenges of climate change to Irish forestry. Future efforts will involve longer-term monitoring of environmental change commensurate with the forest rotation to reduce the uncertainties associated with climate change. Research into forestry economics, attitudinal surveys and behavioural studies may help inform the achievement of future policy goals. Reducing the impacts of biotic attack through efficient surveying, disease monitoring and assessing future risk is likely to be the focus of future research effort.
  • A landscape classification map of Ireland and its potential use in national land use monitoring

    Carlier, J.; Doyle, M.; Finn, John; O hUallachain, Daire; Moran, J.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 2019R425 (Elsevier BV, 2021-07)
    This study presents a novel landscape classification map of the Republic of Ireland and is the first to identify broad landscape classes by incorporating physiographic and land cover data. The landscape classification responds to commitments to identify and classify the Irish landscape as a signatory to the European Landscape Convention. The methodology applied a series of clustering iterations to determine an objective multivariate classification of physiographic landscape units and land cover datasets. The classification results determined nine statistically significant landscape classes and the development of a landscape classification map at a national scale. A statistical breakdown of land cover area and diversity of each class was interpreted, and a comparison was extended using independent descriptive variables including farmland use intensity, elevation, and dominant soil type. Each class depicts unique spatial and composition characteristics, from coastal, lowland and elevated, to distinct and dominating land cover types, further explained by the descriptive variables. The significance of individual classes and success of the classification is discussed with particular reference to the wider applicability of the map. The transferability of the methodology to other existing physiographic maps and environmental datasets to generate new landscape classifications is also considered. This novel work facilitates the development of a strategic framework to efficiently monitor, compare and analyse ecological and other land use data that is spatially representative of the distribution and extent of land cover in the Irish countryside.
  • Benchmarking a decade of holistic agro-environmental studies within the Agricultural Catchments Programme

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Lynch, M.B.; Galloway, J.; Žurovec, O.; McCormack, Michele; O’Neill, M.; Hawtree, D.; Burgess, E.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Teagasc, 2022-02-26)
    Meeting sustainable food production challenges requires efficient ways to manage nutrients and mitigate the losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to water. Future nutrient management therefore requires a clearer understanding of the relative influence of soils, geology, farm practice, landscape and weather on the propensity for nutrients to be lost to water. Within the Agricultural Catchments Programme (ACP), environmental, agronomic and socioeconomic data have been gathered since 2009, using the same experimental methodology in five meso-scale river catchments, and one karst spring zone, covering a range of soils, landscapes and farming systems. The ACP has contributed to a better understanding of nutrient mobilisation and transfer pathways and highlighted the influence of the physical and chemical environment as well as agricultural and meteorological drivers on diffuse nutrient loss to ground and surface waters. The environmental quality standards were breached for N and/or P in some of the catchments, but for different reasons and not always clearly linked to the source pressures within the catchment. There are clearly no one-size-fits-all solutions for mitigation of nutrient losses to water. A better understanding of the underlying processes is required to identify critical source areas, to select mitigation strategies, when to implement them and to build realistic expectations of their impact. Sustainability in an agricultural setting is not confined to environmental issues, but also includes social, economic and innovative aspects. To maximise farmers’ uptake of environmental measures, the actions should encompass all these aspects of sustainability. Integrated knowledge transfer is key.
  • Potatoes in Ireland: Sixty years of potato research and development, market evolution and perspectives on future challenges

    Griffin, Denis; Bourke, L.; Mullins, Ewen; Hennessy, M.; Phelan, S.; Kildea, Steven; Milbourne, Dan (Teagasc, 2022-02-25)
    Potato is often considered synonymous with Ireland, due to the great Irish famine in 1845, and remains the most important primary food crop in Ireland. Over the last 60 yr, the area of potatoes has reduced from 86,000 ha to 9,000 ha. This trend has occurred in most developed countries but in Ireland it is due to decreasing consumption, increasing yield, decline in seed production and potatoes no longer being use for animal feed. Significant specialisation occurred in the industry during the 1990s, with improvements in agronomy, on farm investment in storage and field equipment, consolidation of packing facilities, and a significant shift in cultivar choice, with Rooster becoming the dominant cultivar. These developments led to an increase in yield from 20 t/ha in the mid-1980s to over 40 t/ha today. Potato research in Ireland has focused on breeding, pathology and agronomy, while there have been significant changes in how knowledge is communicated to growers and the industry in this period. The industry faces many challenges in the future, largely framed by climate change, the need to reduce fertiliser and plant protection products as part of the EU Farm to Fork Strategy and industry size constraints. New superior potato varieties and novel breeding techniques will have potential to help address many challenges in combination with integrated pest management principles. Multi-actor approaches will be necessary to address all challenges but particularly to aid the industry grow and exploit emerging opportunities.
  • Quantification of In Planta Zymoseptoria tritici Progression Through Different Infection Phases and Related Association with Components of Aggressiveness

    Rahman, Atikur; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen; European Union; 674964 (Scientific Societies, 2020-06)
    In planta growth of Zymoseptoria tritici, causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch of wheat, during the infection process has remained an understudied topic due to the long symptomless latent period before the emergence of fruiting bodies. In this study, we attempted to understand the relationship between in planta growth of Z. tritici relative to the primary components of aggressiveness, i.e., latent period and pycnidia coverage in regard to contrasting host resistance. We tested isolates collected from Ireland against the susceptible cultivar Gallant and cultivar Stigg, which has strong partial resistance. A clear isolate−host interaction effect (F = 3.018; P = 0.005, and F = 6.008; P < 0.001) for latent period and pycnidia coverage, respectively, was identified. Furthermore, during the early infection phase of latency from 5 to 11 days postinoculation (dpi), in planta growth rate of fungal biomass was significantly (F = 30.06; P < 0.001) more affected by host resistance than isolate specificity (F = 1.27; P = 0.27), indicating the importance of host resistance in the early infection phase. In planta Z. tritici growth rates in cultivar Gallant spiked between 11 and 16 dpi followed by a continuous fall onward, whereas in cultivar Stigg it was slowly progressive in nature. From correlation and regression analysis, we found that the in planta growth rate preceding the average latent period of cultivar Gallant has more influence on latency duration and pycnidia production. Likewise, correlation between component of aggressiveness and in planta growth rate of pathogen supports our understanding of aggressiveness to be driven by the pathogen’s multiplication capacity within host tissue.
  • A comparative study on seed physiology and germination requirements for 15 species of Eucalyptus

    Afroze, Farhana; Douglas, Gerry C.; Grogan, Helen; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15/S/759 (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-09-23)
    Seed physiology of 15 Eucalyptus species of interest for cut foliage plantations was unknown and therefore evaluated. The viability and vigour of seeds and germination potential of 15 Eucalyptus species was determined by using a tetrazolium (TZ) staining test, and the results were compared to a germination test. In a separate experiment, seeds of each lot were subjected to either 0 or 4-week cold stratification at 4 ± 1 °C to investigate their potential stratification requirement. After stratification, seeds were then allowed to germinate at 22 ± 1 °C with 16 h lighting per day for 36 days. Seed viability and vigour were checked by evaluating % root, cotyledon and first true leaves emergence, and the speed of emergence, in the germination test. The germination percentages varied with the species. Seed stratification with the interaction of seed species lots significantly affected both viability and vigour. The seed viability of the different species ranged from 9 to 100% and 2 to 100%, for the TZ test and germination test, respectively, with a high correlation (R2 = 0.89) between the two. Physiology tests revealed that cold stratification of seed was not required for the 15 species to maximise their germination potential and growth in Irish and British climate.
  • Prunus laurocerasus - A crop walkers guide to pests and diseases

    Horticulture Development Department; Grogan, Helen; McGuinness, Brian; Whelton, Andy; Baars, Jan-Robert; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15S759 (Teagasc, 2021)
    The large glossy leaves of Prunus laurocerasus are affected by a variety of problems including pests, diseases and nutrition. The most common issue is commonly referred to as ‘shothole’ due to the nature of the disease symptoms and its’ resemblance to shotgun damage. The causal agents of ‘shothole disease’ vary considerably and this will affect how you approach your disease management strategy.

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