• The effect of cattle slurry in combination with nitrate and the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide on in situ nitrous oxide and dinitrogen emissions

      McGeough, K. L.; Laughlin, Ronald J.; Watson, C. J.; Muller, Christoph; Ernfors, M.; Cahalan, E.; Richards, Karl G.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; RSF 07 519 (European Geosciences Union, 04/12/2012)
      A field study was conducted to determine the effect of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on N2O and N2 emissions after cattle slurry (CS) application in the presence of nitrate (NO3) fertiliser on seven different occasions (between March 2009 and March 2011). N2O emissions from CS in the presence of NO3 fertiliser were very high (0.4–8.7% of applied N) over a 20-day period, under mild moist conditions. Emissions were significantly larger from the CS treatment compared to an NH4+-N source, supplying the same rate of N as in the slurry. This study supports the view that organic fertilisers should not be applied at the same time as nitrate-based fertilisers, as significant increases in N2O emissions occur. The average N2O mole fraction (N2O/(N2O + N2)) over all seven application dates was 0.34 for CSNO3 compared to 0.24 for the NH4ClNO3 treatment, indicating the dominance of N2 emissions. The rate of nitrification in CSNO3 was slower than in NH4ClNO3, and DCD was found to be an effective nitrification inhibitor in both treatments. However, as N2O emissions were found to be predominantly associated with the NO3 pool, the effect of DCD in lowering N2O emissions is limited in the presence of a NO3 fertiliser. To obtain the maximum cost-benefit of DCD in lowering N2O emissions, under mild moist conditions, it should not be applied to a nitrate containing fertiliser (e.g. ammonium nitrate or calcium ammonium nitrate), and therefore the application of DCD should be restricted to ammonium-based organic or synthetic fertilisers.
    • The effect of precipitation and application rate on dicyandiamide persistence and efficiency in two Irish grassland soils

      Cahalan, E.; Minet, E.; Emfors, M.; Muller, Christoph; Devaney, D.; Forrestal, Patrick J.; Richards, Karl G.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; RSF 07519; RSF 07545 (Wiley, 14/07/2015)
      The nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) has had variable success in reducing nitrate (NO3-) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils receiving nitrogen (N) fertilisers. Factors such as soil type, temperature and moisture have been linked to the variable efficacy of DCD. Since DCD is water soluble it can be leached from the rooting zone where it is intended to inhibit nitrification. Intact soil columns (15 cm diameter by 35 cm long) were taken from luvic gleysol and haplic cambisol grassland sites and placed in growth chambers. DCD was applied at 15 or 30 kg DCD ha-1, with high or low precipitation. Leaching of DCD, mineral N and the residual soil DCD concentrations were determined over eight weeks High precipitation increased DCD in leachate and decreased recovery in soil. A soil x DCD rate interaction was detected for the DCD unaccounted (proxy for degraded DCD). In the cambisol degradation of DCD was high (circa 81%) and unaffected by DCD rate. In contrast DCD degradation in the gleysol was lower and differentially affected by rate, 67 and 46% for the 15 and 30 kg ha-1 treatments, respectively. Differences DCD degradation rates between soils may be related to differences in organic matter content and associated microbiological activity. Variable degradation rates of DCD in soil, unrelated to temperature or moisture, may contribute to varying DCD efficacy. Soil properties should be considered when tailoring DCD strategies for improving nitrogen use efficiency and crop yields, through the reduction of reactive nitrogen loss.