• Implications of the proposed Soil Framework Directive on agricultural systems in Atlantic Europe – a review

      Creamer, Rachel E.; Brennan, Fiona P.; Fenton, Owen; Healy, Mark G.; Lalor, Stanley T. J.; Lanigan, Gary; Regan, J. T.; Griffiths, Bryan (Wiley; British Society of Soil Science, 28/07/2010)
      The main threats to soils outlined in the pending Soil Framework Directive (SFD) are: contamination, loss of organic matter, erosion, compaction, sealing, salinization and desertification. The first four threats are pertinent to agricultural systems in Atlantic Europe, but vary in their extent between countries depending on the spatial soil distribution. Loss of soil biodiversity has not been included as a potential threat in the SFD due to lack of information that is currently available both spatially and temporally to facilitate any legislation to protect it. This paper gives emphasis to the four main threats outlined above associated with Agricultural systems in Atlantic Europe. Each soil threat is discussed in relation to the agricultural management calendar for cultivated and grazed grassland soils. The paper discusses current soil protection policies and possible changes to such legislation with the adoption of the SFD by member states.
    • A review of phosphorus and sediment release from Irish tillage soils, the methods used to quantify losses and the current state of mitigation practice

      Regan, J. T.; Fenton, Owen; Healy, Mark G.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Royal Irish Academy, 20/03/2012)
      Throughout the European Union (EU), agricultural soils with high phosphorus (P) status due to surplus fertiliser input have been identifi ed as a landscape pressure impacting on water quality. In Republic of Ireland, approximately 80% of agricultural land is devoted to grass, 11% to rough grazing, and 9% to arable cereal and crop production. Consequently, the majority of erosion research has focused on quantifying nutrient and sediment losses from grassland. Tillage soils are, however, more susceptible to erosion than grassland soils and, in general, have higher levels of soil P. This paper reviews the current state of research and the regulatory regime relating to diffuse P and sediment loss for tillage soils. It identifi es the key threats to soil quality associated with cultivated soils, and proposes the targeting and remediation of critical source areas for effective mitigation of P losses from tillage soils. A multiscaled approach is recommended, in which catchment and field-scale monitoring is complemented with controlled laboratory and small plot-scale rainfall simulation experiments to identify areas where P loss and soil erosion are at critical levels and may pose a threat to water quality. Catchment scale research will help to link critical source areas of sediment and P loss with hydrological pathways to surface waters in the catchment area. These areas can then be targeted for remediation in the river basin management plans.
    • The short-term effects of management changes on watertable position and nutrients in shallow groundwater in a harvested peatland forest

      Finnegan, Joanne; Regan, J. T.; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary; Brennan, Raymond B.; Healy, Mark G.; Environmental Protection Agency; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Elsevier, 08/05/2014)
      Management changes such as drainage, fertilisation, afforestation and harvesting (clearfelling) of forested peatlands influence watertable (WT) position and groundwater concentrations of nutrients. This study investigated the impact of clearfelling of a peatland forest on WT and nutrient concentrations. Three areas were examined: (1) a regenerated riparian peatland buffer (RB) clearfelled four years prior to the present study (2) a recently clearfelled coniferous forest (CF) and (3) a standing, mature coniferous forest (SF), on which no harvesting took place. The WT remained consistently below 0.3 m during the pre-clearfelling period. Results showed there was an almost immediate rise in the WT after clearfelling and a rise to 0.15 m below ground level (bgl) within 10 months of clearfelling. Clearfelling of the forest increased dissolved reactive phosphorus concentrations (from an average of 28–230 μg L−1) in the shallow groundwater, likely caused by leaching from degrading brash mats.