Now showing items 1-20 of 435

    • A comparative study on seed physiology and germination requirements for 15 species of Eucalyptus

      Afroze, Farhana; Douglas, Gerry C.; Grogan, Helen; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15/S/759 (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-09-23)
      Seed physiology of 15 Eucalyptus species of interest for cut foliage plantations was unknown and therefore evaluated. The viability and vigour of seeds and germination potential of 15 Eucalyptus species was determined by using a tetrazolium (TZ) staining test, and the results were compared to a germination test. In a separate experiment, seeds of each lot were subjected to either 0 or 4-week cold stratification at 4 ± 1 °C to investigate their potential stratification requirement. After stratification, seeds were then allowed to germinate at 22 ± 1 °C with 16 h lighting per day for 36 days. Seed viability and vigour were checked by evaluating % root, cotyledon and first true leaves emergence, and the speed of emergence, in the germination test. The germination percentages varied with the species. Seed stratification with the interaction of seed species lots significantly affected both viability and vigour. The seed viability of the different species ranged from 9 to 100% and 2 to 100%, for the TZ test and germination test, respectively, with a high correlation (R2 = 0.89) between the two. Physiology tests revealed that cold stratification of seed was not required for the 15 species to maximise their germination potential and growth in Irish and British climate.
    • Prunus laurocerasus - A crop walkers guide to pests and diseases

      Horticulture Development Department; Grogan, Helen; McGuinness, Brian; Whelton, Andy; Baars, Jan-Robert; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15S759 (Teagasc, 2021)
      The large glossy leaves of Prunus laurocerasus are affected by a variety of problems including pests, diseases and nutrition. The most common issue is commonly referred to as ‘shothole’ due to the nature of the disease symptoms and its’ resemblance to shotgun damage. The causal agents of ‘shothole disease’ vary considerably and this will affect how you approach your disease management strategy.
    • The occurrence of herbicide-resistant Avena fatua (wild oats) populations to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Ireland

      Byrne, R.; Vijaya Bhaskar, A.V.; Spink, J.; Freckleton, R.; Neve, P.; Barth, Susanne (Teagasc, 2021-06-03)
      Following growers’ reports of herbicide control problems, populations of 30 wild oats, Avena fatua, were collected from the south-east main arable counties of Ireland in 2016 and investigated for the occurrence and potential for herbicide resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors pinoxaden, propaquizafop and cycloxydim, as well as acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron. Plant survival ≥20% was considered as the discriminating threshold between resistant and susceptible populations, when plants were treated with full recommended field rates of ACCase/ALS inhibitors. Glasshouse sensitivity screens revealed 2 out of 30 populations were cross-resistant to all three ACCase inhibitors. While three populations were cross-resistant to both pinoxaden and propaquizafop, and additionally, two populations were resistant to propaquizafop only. Different degree of resistance and cross-resistance between resistant populations suggest the involvement of either different point mutations or more than one resistance mechanism. Nevertheless, all populations including the seven ACCase-resistant populations were equally susceptible to ALS inhibitor. An integrated weed management (cultural/non-chemical control tactics and judicious use of herbicides) approach is strongly recommended to minimize the risk of herbicide resistance evolution.
    • A note on the early transcriptional response in leaves and root of potato plants to cadmium exposure

      Mengist, M.F.; Byrne, Stephen; Griffin, Denis; Milbourne, Dan; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11SF308 (Teagasc, 2021-03-26)
      Potato plants can accumulate a high amount of cadmium (Cd) in the tuber when grown in soils rich in Cd. The molecular mechanisms governing Cd accumulation in the potato plant are poorly understood. Here we performed an RNA-sequencing experiment to identify genes differentially expressed in the leaf and root of potato during early stages of Cd exposure. Results did not identify any significant transcriptional response in leaves under 1 or 5 mg kg−1 Cd after 72 h. However, in the roots we did identify 2,846 genes that were significantly differentially expressed after 72 h between plants grown in 5 mg kg−1 Cd and controls. These included genes involved in photosynthesis and autophagy being up-regulated, and genes involved in intracellular transport being down-regulated. This study is the first report on the transcriptome-wide response of potato to Cd stress, providing insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the response.
    • Fertiliser characteristics of stored spent mushroom substrate as a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter for tillage, grassland and agricultural soils

      Velusami, B.; Jordan, S.N.; Curran, T.; Grogan, Helen; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme (Teagasc, 2021-05-12)
      Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is an organic manure that can be used with advantage in agriculture. Under European Union (EU) (Good Agricultural Practice for Protection of Waters) Regulations, SMS cannot be applied to land over the winter months and must be stored on concrete surfaces, either covered or uncovered, to prevent nutrient-rich runoff seeping into groundwater. Spent mushroom substrate at four storage facilities, two covered and two uncovered, was analysed for physical and chemical characteristics after storage for up to 12 mo. Significant differences (P<0.05) were identified for all parameters across the four sites, except for pH, but there were no consistent differences that correlated with uncovered or covered storage conditions. The content of nitrogen (N) and manganese (Mn) was significantly lower in uncovered SMS, while the content of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) was significantly higher. The chemical nitrogen-phospous-potassium (NPK) fertiliser equivalent value of SMS, when applied at a rate of 10 t/ha, was between €105 and €191 per hectare. Nitrogen-phospous-potassium concentrations per kg wet weight were all higher in SMS that was stored under cover, meaning higher chemical fertiliser savings are possible. The high pH of stored SMS (7.8–8.1) means it could be used with good effect on acid soils instead of ground limestone. The low bulk density of SMS (0.545–0.593 g/cm3) makes it an ideal amendment to soils to improve soil structure and quality. There is some variability in the nutrient content of SMS from different sources, so it is advisable to get the material analysed when including in nutrient management plans.
    • Experimental comparison of two methods to study barley responses to partial submergence

      Miricescu, Alexandra; Byrne, Tomás; Doorly, Catherine M; Ng, Carl K Y; Barth, Susanne; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Maynooth University Kathleen Lonsdale Institute for Human Health.; 14/S/819 (Biomed Central, 2021-04-13)
      Background Crop yield is dependent on climate conditions, which are becoming both more variable and extreme in some areas of the world as a consequence of global climate change. Increased precipitation and flooding events are the cause of important yield losses due to waterlogging or (partial) submergence of crops in the field. Our ability to screen efficiently and quickly for varieties that have increased tolerance to waterlogging or (partial) submergence is important. Barley, a staple crop worldwide, is particularly sensitive to waterlogging. Screening for waterlogging tolerant barley varieties has been ongoing for many years, but methods used to screen vary greatly, from the type of soil used to the time at which the treatment is applied. This variation makes it difficult to cross-compare results. Results Here, we have devised a scoring system to assess barley tolerance to waterlogging and compare two different methods when partial submergence is applied with either water or a starch solution at an early developmental stage, which is particularly sensitive to waterlogging or partial submergence. The use of a starch solution has been previously shown to result in more reducing soil conditions and has been used to screen for waterlogging tolerance. Conclusions Our results show that the two methods provide similar results to qualitatively rank varieties as tolerant or sensitive, while also affecting plants differently, in that application of a starch solution results in stronger and earlier symptoms than applying partial submergence with water.
    • Physiological and transcriptional response to drought stress among bioenergy grass Miscanthus species

      De Vega, Jose J.; Teshome, Abel; Klaas, Manfred; Grant, Jim; Finnan, John; Barth, Susanne; European Union; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions COFUND CAROLINE; UK Research Council; FP7-KBBE-2011-5-289461; et al. (Biomed Central, 2021-03-06)
      Background Miscanthus is a commercial lignocellulosic biomass crop owing to its high biomass productivity, resilience and photosynthetic capacity at low temperature. These qualities make Miscanthus a particularly good candidate for temperate marginal land, where yields can be limited by insufficient or excessive water supply. Differences in response to water stress have been observed among Miscanthus species, which correlated to origin. In this study, we compared the physiological and molecular responses among Miscanthus species under excessive (flooded) and insufficient (drought) water supply in glasshouse conditions. Results A significant biomass loss was observed under drought conditions in all genotypes. M. x giganteus showed a lower reduction in biomass yield under drought conditions compared to the control than the other species. Under flooded conditions, biomass yield was as good as or better than control conditions in all species. 4389 of the 67,789 genes (6.4%) in the reference genome were differentially expressed during drought among four Miscanthus genotypes from different species. We observed the same biological processes were regulated across Miscanthus species during drought stress despite the DEGs being not similar. Upregulated differentially expressed genes were significantly involved in sucrose and starch metabolism, redox, and water and glycerol homeostasis and channel activity. Multiple copies of the starch metabolic enzymes BAM and waxy GBSS-I were strongly up-regulated in drought stress in all Miscanthus genotypes, and 12 aquaporins (PIP1, PIP2 and NIP2) were also up-regulated in drought stress across genotypes. Conclusions Different phenotypic responses were observed during drought stress among Miscanthus genotypes from different species, supporting differences in genetic adaption. The low number of DEGs and higher biomass yield in flooded conditions supported Miscanthus use in flooded land. The molecular processes regulated during drought were shared among Miscanthus species and consistent with functional categories known to be critical during drought stress in model organisms. However, differences in the regulated genes, likely associated with ploidy and heterosis, highlighted the value of exploring its diversity for breeding.
    • Development of a defined compost system for the study of plant-microbe interactions

      Masters-Clark, E.; Shone, E.; Paradelo, M.; Hirsch, P. R.; Clark, I. M.; Otten, W.; Brennan, Fiona; Mauchline, T. H.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Natural Environment Research Council; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-05-05)
      Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria can improve plant health by providing enhanced nutrition, disease suppression and abiotic stress resistance, and have potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture. We have developed a sphagnum peat-based compost platform for investigating plantmicrobe interactions. The chemical, physical and biological status of the system can be manipulated to understand the relative importance of these factors for plant health, demonstrated using three case studies: 1. Nutrient depleted compost retained its structure, but plants grown in this medium were severely stunted in growth due to removal of essential soluble nutrients - particularly, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Compost nutrient status was replenished with the addition of selected soluble nutrients, validated by plant biomass; 2. When comparing milled and unmilled compost, we found nutrient status to be more important than matrix structure for plant growth; 3. In compost defcient in soluble P, supplemented with an insoluble inorganic form of P (Ca3(PO4)2), application of a phosphate solubilising Pseudomonas strain to plant roots provides a signifcant growth boost when compared with a Pseudomonas strain incapable of solubilising Ca3(PO4)2. Our fndings show that the compost system can be manipulated to impose biotic and abiotic stresses for testing how microbial inoculants infuence plant growth.
    • Tropical forest soil carbon stocks do not increase despite 15 years of doubled litter inputs

      Sayer, Emma J.; Lopez-Sangil, Luis; Crawford, John A.; Bréchet, Laëtitia M.; Birkett, Ali J.; Baxendale, Catherine; Castro, Biancolini; Rodtassana, Chadtip; Garnett, Mark H.; Weiss, Lena; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-23)
      Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics represent a persisting uncertainty in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. SOC storage is strongly linked to plant inputs via the formation of soil organic matter, but soil geochemistry also plays a critical role. In tropical soils with rapid SOC turnover, the association of organic matter with soil minerals is particularly important for stabilising SOC but projected increases in tropical forest productivity could trigger feedbacks that stimulate the release of stored SOC. Here, we demonstrate limited additional SOC storage after 13–15 years of experimentally doubled aboveground litter inputs in a lowland tropical forest. We combined biological, physical, and chemical methods to characterise SOC along a gradient of bioavailability. After 13 years of monthly litter addition treatments, most of the additional SOC was readily bioavailable and we observed no increase in mineral-associated SOC. Importantly, SOC with weak association to soil minerals declined in response to long-term litter addition, suggesting that increased plant inputs could modify the formation of organo-mineral complexes in tropical soils. Hence, we demonstrate the limited capacity of tropical soils to sequester additional C inputs and provide insights into potential underlying mechanisms.
    • Impact of nitrogen compounds on fungal and bacterial contributions to codenitrification in a pasture soil

      Rex, David; Clough, Timothy J.; Richards, Karl G.; Condron, Leo M.; de Klein, Cecile A. M.; Morales, Sergio E.; Lanigan, Gary J.; New Zealand Government; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 16084 (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-09-16)
      Ruminant urine patches on grazed grassland are a signifcant source of agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Of the many biotic and abiotic N2O production mechanisms initiated following urine-urea deposition, codenitrifcation resulting in the formation of hybrid N2O, is one of the least understood. Codenitrifcation forms hybrid N2O via biotic N-nitrosation, co-metabolising organic and inorganic N compounds (N substrates) to produce N2O. The objective of this study was to assess the relative signifcance of diferent N substrates on codenitrifcation and to determine the contributions of fungi and bacteria to codenitrifcation. 15N-labelled ammonium, hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and two amino acids (phenylalanine or glycine) were applied, separately, to sieved soil mesocosms eight days after a simulated urine event, in the absence or presence of bacterial and fungal inhibitors. Soil chemical variables and N2O fuxes were monitored and the codenitrifed N2O fuxes determined. Fungal inhibition decreased N2O fuxes by ca. 40% for both amino acid treatments, while bacterial inhibition only decreased the N2O fux of the glycine treatment, by 14%. Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) generated the highest N2O fuxes which declined with either fungal or bacterial inhibition alone, while combined inhibition resulted in a 60% decrease in the N2O fux. All the N substrates examined participated to some extent in codenitrifcation. Trends for codenitrifcation under the NH2OH substrate treatment followed those of total N2O fuxes (85.7% of total N2O fux). Codenitrifcation fuxes under non-NH2OH substrate treatments (0.7–1.2% of total N2O fux) were two orders of magnitude lower, and signifcant decreases in these treatments only occurred with fungal inhibition in the amino acid substrate treatments. These results demonstrate that in situ studies are required to better understand the dynamics of codenitrifcation substrates in grazed pasture soils and the associated role that fungi have with respect to codenitrifcation.
    • In vitro screening of different Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates to study lytic enzyme production and growth inhibition during antagonism of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini, wilt causing pathogen of cumin

      Rathore, Ridhdhi; Vakharia, Dinesh K.; Singh Rathore, Dheeraj (Springer Open, 2020-05-12)
      Land plants exist in close association with bacterial and fungal microbes, where some associations can be pathogenic and others can be mutualistic/beneficial. One such relation exists between host plant, Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini (Foc), the causal pathogen of cumin wilt and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf), where Pf acts as a bio-agent for inhibiting Foc and promoting plant growth of cumin. In this study, antagonism by 10 different Pf isolates against Foc was studied under laboratory conditions through percent growth inhibition and biochemical mechanisms. Among these Pf isolates, Pf-5 exhibited the highest in vitro growth inhibition (82.51%). A positive correlation was observed between percent growth inhibition and specific activities of hydrolytic enzymes, chitinase, β-1, 3 glucanase, and protease, where a negative correlation was observed with cell wall degrading enzymes, cellulase and polygalacturonase. To conclude, isolate Pf-5 could be a potential biocontrol agent for Fusarium wilt disease of cumin.
    • Roadmap for the European Joint Program SOIL: Towards Climate-Smart Sustainable Management of Agricultural Soils

      Saskia, Visser; Saskia, Keesstra; Órlaith, Ní Choncubhair; Titia, Mulder; Edoardo, Costantini; Francois, Sousanna Jean; Claire, Chenu; Peter, Kuikman; Jennie, Barron; Niels, Halberg; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-06-23)
      Our planet suffers from humankind’s impact on natural resources, biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems. Intensive modern agriculture with inappropriate inputs of fertilisers, pesticides and fossil fuel –based energy has increasingly added to human pressure on the environment. As a key element of our natural capital, soils are also under threat, despite being essential to provide food, feed, fibre and fuel for an increasing global population. Moreover, soils play a key role in carbon, water and energy cycles, highlighting their importance for biomass provision and the circular bioeconomy. Evidently, these new and complex challenges cannot be resolved effectively with existing knowledge and experience alone. These challenges require scientific research, interdisciplinary collaboration and networking to find context-specific and tailored solutions addressing societal issues of our time and facilitating the adoption of these solutions. The most effective approaches are based on the involvement of multiple actors from science, policy, economy, civil society and farming that have the same goal, work on the same societal issue, but have complementing backgrounds, expertise and perceptions. The European Joint Programme (EJP) SOIL is a European network of research institutes in the field of soil science and agricultural soil management that will provide science-based advice to practitioners and policymakers, at local, national and European level. The EJP SOIL aims to align and boost research, training and capacity building through joint programming activities co-funded by the European Commission and national research programs. This will reduce current fragmentation and help to find synergies in order to make a leapfrog in research on good agricultural soil management in three main areas: climate change mitigation and adaptation, production capacity in healthy food systems, and environmental sustainability. By joint programming, training and capacity building, EJP SOIL will also take into account the need for effective policy solutions, as well as the socio-economic conditions of all stakeholders in the agricultural value chain. Thus, a key focus of the EJP SOIL is to build and strengthen a framework for an integrated community of research groups working on related aspects of agricultural soil management. As part of this effort, EJP SOIL will co-construct with stakeholders a roadmap for agricultural soil research. To develop a structured roadmap, EJP SOIL works with a version of the knowledge management framework of Dalkir (2005). The EJP version uses four compartments: (i) Knowledge development, (ii) knowledge harmonisation, organisation and storage (iii) knowledge sharing and transfer, and (iv) knowledge application. The four segments are part of a cyclic process to enhance the development and use of knowledge on agricultural soils. Knowledge development comprises assessing new knowledge needs to achieve the expected impacts of EJP SOIL. Therefore, by involving multiple stakeholders, knowledge gaps across Europe will be identified to work towards the adoption of Climate-Smart Sustainable Agricultural Soil Management (CSSASM). Within the knowledge sharing and transfer compartment, the capacity of scientists, advisors, policy makers, farmers and other stakeholders will be strengthened. EJP SOIL will work to support networks and co-creation of new knowledge with stakeholder groups, stimulating innovation in CSSASM. The knowledge harmonization, organization and storage compartment of the knowledge framework ensures linkages with all stakeholders to guarantee data harmonization and standardization. The last compartment, application of knowledge, will be facilitated by creating better guidelines, awareness and capacity for Climate-Smart Sustainable Agricultural Soil Management adoption and by strengthening science-to-policy processes at EU and Member State level.
    • Plant Sciences and Crop Husbandry: Research Report 1989

      Rea, Joe; Butler, Thomas; Fottrell, P; Harvey, Maurice; McDaid, Donal; O'Dowd, Helen; O'Dwyer, Michael; Power, Patrick; Walshe, Mary; Walshe, Padraig; et al. (2021-12-09)
      This report summarizes the research undertaken by Teagasc in the areas of Plant Sciences and Crop Husbandry in 1989
    • An Analysis of the Cost of the Abatement of Ammonia Emissions in Irish Agriculture to 2030

      Buckley, Cathal; Krol, Dominika; Lanigan, Gary J.; Donnellan, Trevor; Spink, John; Hanrahan, Kevin; Boland, Andy; Forrestal, Patrick; Humphreys, James; Murphy, Pat; et al. (Teagasc, 2020-09)
      This analysis quantifies the potential to abate national ammonia (NH3) emissions up to 2030. This report is an updated marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) analysis where Teagasc has quantified the abatement potential of a range of ammonia mitigation measures, as well as their associated costs/benefits (see Lanigan et al. 2015 for previous analysis). The objective of this analysis is to quantify the extent and costs associated with meeting future ammonia emission targets that were negotiated as part of the amended Clean Air Policy Package. The requirement to reduce ammonia emissions is urgent, both in terms of compliance with the National Emissions Ceilings Directive (NECD), and as a principal loss pathway for agricultural nitrogen (N). Improvement of N efficiency is a key focus for improving farm efficiency and sustainability as well as reducing the ammonia, nitrate and greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of agriculture. This is particularly relevant in the context of the national strategies on the development of the agri-food sector: Food Wise 2025, Ag-food strategy 2030 and Ag-Climatise (currently under development) and the newly unveiled EU Farm to Fork Strategy, which is a part of the European Green Deal. Under the baseline scenario (S1), agricultural ammonia emissions are projected to increase by 9% (without any mitigation) by 2030 relative to 2005 levels. While these increases are small in comparison to the targeted increase in agricultural output, they will provide a major challenge to meeting emissions targets, particularly as agriculture comprises over 99% of national emissions. The analysis presented in this report seeks to quantify the ammonia mitigation potential under likely uptake pathways. This is not an exhaustive analysis of all mitigation measures, but represents an assessment of best available techniques, based on scientific, peer-reviewed research carried out by Teagasc and associated national and international research partners. Indeed, any future changes in the sector or in the national emission inventory calculations will require further analysis of the applicability of ammonia mitigation techniques, particularly in terms of housing and storage but also in the context of other reactive N1 emissions. It should also be noted that some mitigation measures, particularly those related to nitrogen application to soils, could result in either higher greenhouse gas emissions or higher nitrate leaching. Compared to a future where no mitigation measures are deployed to address emissions, by 2030 the average technical abatement2 potential was estimated to be approximately 15.26 kt NH3 at a net cost of €10.86 million per annum. However, it should be noted that the net cost (€10.86 million) is comprised of 6 measures that are cost negative (-€22.21 million) and 7 measures that are cost positive (€33.07) and that some of the cost negative measures are predicated on efficiency gains driven by best management practice adoption (e.g. liming and clover measures with associate chemical N reductions). Amongst the thirteen mitigation measures selected for this analysis, 80% of the mitigation potential can be achieved by the full implementation of the mitigation pathways for protected urea and low emission slurry spreading (LESS) techniques for bovines. It should be stressed that this is an assessment of the maximum abatement potential and realising this level of abatement in practice will be extremely challenging. Any increase in agricultural activity beyond the baseline scenario will increase absolute emissions. The level of mitigation achievable is based on the draft AgClimatise measures any delay or reduction in the uptake of these measures will reduce the mitigation achieved. It must also be ensured that all mitigation measures should, where possible, be synergistic with reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and N loss to water.
    • Ranking hazards pertaining to human health concerns from land application of anaerobic digestate

      Nag, Rajat; Whyte, Paul; Markey, Bryan K.; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Bolton, Declan; Fenton, Owen; Richards, Karl G.; Cummins, Enda; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 14/SF/847 (Elsevier BV, 2020-03)
      Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been identified as one of the cleanest producers of green energy. AD typically uses organic materials as feedstock and, through a series of biological processes, produces methane. Farmyard manure and slurry (FYM&S) are important AD feedstock and are typically mixed with agricultural waste, grass and/or food wastes. The feedstock may contain many different pathogens which can survive the AD process and hence also possibly be present in the final digestate. In this study, a semi-quantitative screening tool was developed to rank pathogens of potential health concern emerging from AD digestate. A scoring system was used to categorise likely inactivation during AD, hazard pathways and finally, severity as determined from reported human mortality rates, number of global human-deaths and infections per 100,000 populations. Five different conditions including mesophilic and thermophilic AD and three different pasteurisation conditions were assessed in terms of specific pathogen inactivation. In addition, a number of scenarios were assessed to consider foodborne incidence data from Ireland and Europe and to investigate the impact of raw FYM&S application (without AD and pasteurisation). A sensitivity analysis revealed that the score for the mortality rate (S3) was the most sensitive parameter (rank coefficient 0.49) to influence the final score S; followed by thermal inactivation score (S1, 0.25) and potential contamination pathways (S2, 0.16). Across all the scenarios considered, the screening tool prioritised Cryptosporidium parvum, Salmonella spp., norovirus, Streptococcus pyogenes, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Mycobacterium spp., Salmonella typhi (followed by S. paratyphi), Clostridium spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter coli as the highest-ranking pathogens of human health concern resulting from AD digestate in Ireland. This tool prioritises potentially harmful pathogens which can emerge from AD digestate and highlights where regulation and intervention may be required.
    • A Response to the Draft Climate Change Adaptation Sectoral Plan for Agriculture, Forest and Seafood Sector

      Farrelly, Niall; Lanigan, Gary; Donnellan, Trevor; Richards, Karl; Fealy, Reamonn; O’Donovan, Michael; Mellander, Per-Erik; Mullins, Ewen; Houlihan, Tom; Ní Fhlatharta, Nuala; et al. (2019-08-30)
      Teagasc is pleased to have the opportunity to contribute to this Draft Climate Change Adaptation Sectoral Plan for Agriculture, Forest and Seafood Sectors, although our contribution will largely be limited to the agriculture and forestry sectors. We have also taken the liberty to contribute in the form of ‘submissions, observations and comments’ as indicated in the call for contributions rather than in the formal questionnaire which appears to be more appropriate for an individual submission rather than an organisational contribution.
    • The Double Spade Method: a ‘mini-profile’ visual soil evaluation technique

      Emmet-Booth, J.P.; Forristal, P.D.; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, G.; Holden, N.M (2021-11-23)
      Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) methods are established for soil quality assessment and focus on the examination of soil structure and associated anthropogenic impacts. VSE techniques, of which numerous types exist, are successfully used internationally both in soil research and as sustainable soil management tools. Techniques are generally categorised into profile and spade methods. Profile methods examine entire soil profiles in soil-pits to depths of ~ 1.5 m, exploring interactions between inherent soil features and anthropic management at specific sample points. Spade methods examine the upper soil profile, often by extracting sample blocks of topsoil by spade and focus on anthropic impacts. The VESS method (Guimarães et al., 2011) is a widely used spade method and involves assessment of soil sample blocks to 25 cm depth. However, in arable soils, important structural features may occur just below this depth such as plough pans, which VESS may not capture. The SubVESS method (Ball et al., 2015) follows principles of VESS but allows assessment to ~ 1 m depth. However, the later involves soil-pit excavation by mechanical means, which may be destructive, costly, time consuming and limit replication. When used in on-farm situations by farmers or advisors, full soil-pit excavation may not be desirable. Here we describe a method previously outlined (Emmet-Booth et al. 2018) called the Double Spade Method (DS) designed to examine miniprofiles in soil pits to 40 cm depth, therefore capturing potential structural features below the VESS assessment depth, without requiring full soil-pit excavation.
    • Beyond ruminants: discussing opportunities for alternative pasture uses in New Zealand

      Lucci, Gina M.; Henchion, Maeve M.; Lange, Lene; Ledgard, Stewart F.; Collie, Stewart R.; Cosgrove, Gerald P.; Meyer, Anne S.; Graichen, Florian H.M.; Barth, Susanne; Lenehan, James J. (New Zealand Grassland Association, 2019-10-28)
      The New Zealand government has set ambitious goals for primary sector growth and of zero net carbon emissions by 2050. This presents an opportunity and obligation to develop new ideas for grassland production systems to increase export value and generate new job opportunities, while reducing environmental impacts. The aim of this paper is to draw on recent research in Europe to investigate some of the alternative and complementary uses for pasture as a feedstock for a green biorefinery. A biorefinery is a facility, or a series of processes, that convert biomass into a spectrum of value-added products. For example, protein can be extracted mechanically from green biomass once harvested. The residual fibre fraction could be used as a low-nitrogen feed for ruminants to reduce urinary nitrogen, while the liquid protein fraction could be processed to make it suitable for mono-gastric or human consumption. Enzymes can promote protein extraction and controlled conversion of insoluble plant fibres and oligosaccharides to foster gut-health promoting prebiotic food ingredients. Anaerobic digestion of residues can then be used to create energy and soilimproving products. Research and demonstration of these approaches in practice, along with the results of feasibility studies, will be required to see which of these opportunities is a good fit for New Zealand pasture systems.
    • Editorial: RAMIRAN 2017: Sustainable Utilisation of Manures and Residue Resources in Agriculture

      Misselbrook, Tom; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Richards, Karl; Lanigan, Gary; Burchill, William; Salazar, Francisco; RAMIRAN 2017 (Frontiers, 2019-09-24)
      The recycling of organic residues deriving from on-farm (e.g., livestock manure) or off-farm (e.g., sewage sludge, industrial by-products) is a central part of the circular economy toward developing more sustainable food production systems (e.g., EC, 2014). However, the safe, effective, and efficient use of organic “waste” streams as resources for nutrient provision and soil improvement in agricultural systems require several challenges to be addressed, summarized by Bernal (2017) as (i) to improve nutrient availability and soil cycling; (ii) to develop technologies for nutrient re-use; (iii) to reduce contaminants and improve food safety; (iv) to mitigate environmental emissions; and (v) to enhance soil health and function. Addressing these challenges needs multidisciplinary research within a whole systems context.
    • LIFE BEEF CARBON: a common framework for quantifying grass and corn based beef farms’ carbon footprints

      O’Brien, D.; Herron, J.; Andurand, J.; Caré, S.; Martinez, P.; Migliorati, L.; Moro, M.; Pirlo, G.; Dollé, J-B; European Union; et al. (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2019-10-31)
      Europe’s roadmap to a low-carbon economy aims to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Beef production is an important source of GHG emissions and is expected to increase as the world population grows. LIFE BEEF CARBON is a voluntary European initiative that aims to reduce GHG emissions per unit of beef (carbon footprint) by 15% over a 10-year period on 2172 farms in four large beef-producing countries. Changes in farms beef carbon footprint are normally estimated via simulation modelling, but the methods current models apply differ. Thus, our initial goal was to develop a common modelling framework to estimate beef farms carbon footprint. The framework was developed for a diverse set of Western Europe farms located in Ireland, Spain, Italy and France. Whole farm and life cycle assessment (LCA) models were selected to quantify emissions for the different production contexts and harmonized. Carbon Audit was chosen for Ireland, Bovid-CO2 for Spain and CAP’2ER for France and Italy. All models were tested using 20 case study farms, that is, 5 per country and quantified GHG emissions associated with on-farm live weight gain. The comparison showed the ranking of beef systems gross carbon footprint was consistent across the three models. Suckler to weaning or store systems generally had the highest carbon footprint followed by suckler to beef systems and fattening beef systems. When applied to the same farm, Carbon Audit’s footprint estimates were slightly lower than CAP’2ER, but marginally higher than Bovid-CO2. These differences occurred because the models were adapted to a specific region’s production circumstances, which meant their emission factors for key sources; that is, methane from enteric fermentation and GHG emissions from concentrates were less accurate when used outside their target region. Thus, for the common modelling framework, regionspecific LCA models were chosen to estimate beef carbon footprints instead of a single generic model. Additionally, the Carbon Audit and Bovid-CO2 models were updated to include carbon removal by soil and other environmental metrics included in CAP’2ER, for example, acidification. This allows all models to assess the effect carbon mitigation strategies have on other potential pollutants. Several options were identified to reduce beef farms carbon footprint, for example, improving genetic merit. These options were assessed for beef systems, and a mitigation plan was created by each nation. The cumulative mitigation effect of the LIFE BEEF CARBON plan was estimated to exceed the projects reduction target (−15%).