• Review of potential sources and control of thermoduric bacteria in bulk-tank milk

      Gleeson, David E; O'Connell, Aine; Jordan, Kieran; Irish Dairy Levy Research Trust (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2013)
      Bacteria that contaminate milk include thermoduric bacteria that can survive pasteurisation and subsequently grow in the pasteurised milk or contaminate product. Elimination of thermodurics at milking is not feasible. Therefore, knowledge of their source and strategies for their reduction are important. The major sources of thermodurics in milk are contamination of the teat skin from soil and bedding, and subsequent contamination from deposits that can build up on milking equipment surfaces. Hygiene at milking can reduce the number of bacteria contaminating milk. Teat preparation at milking and a recommended plant cleaning procedure are critical to the prevention of the contamination of milk with thermoduric bacteria.
    • Review of studies on flukicide residues in cows’ milk and their transfer to dairy products

      Power, C.; Sayers, Riona; O'Brien, Bernadette; Furey, A.; Danaher, Martin; Kieran, Jordan; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2013)
      Flukicides are widely used to treat infestations of liver fluke in dairy cattle. This could result in flukicide residues in milk if animals are improperly treated or if withdrawal periods are not properly observed. The purpose of this review is to summarise the results of studies on depletion of flukicides from milk and the transfer of flukicide residues to dairy products, if present in the milk. As the depletion of flukicide residues from milk of animals treated during lactation was relatively slow, the studies support the view that the dry period (when milk is not being used for human consumption) is the most suitable time for flukicide treatment. Migration of residues to product occurred at different rates, depending on the drug in question. Generally, concentration of flukicides occurred in cheese, butter and skim milk powder. Pasteurisation or heat treatment during spray drying had no impact in reducing residues.
    • Understanding and using somatic cell counts to improve milk quality

      Ruegg, P.L.; Pantoja, J.C.F. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2013)
      The production of high quality milk is a requirement to sustain a profitable dairy industry and somatic cell count (SCC) values are routinely used to identify subclinical mastitis and define quality standards. The objective of this paper is to review the use of SCC as a diagnostic tool for subclinical mastitis in order to improve milk quality on dairy farms. Mastitis is detected based on inflammation subsequent to intramammary infection (IMI) by pathogenic organisms. Individual cow SCC values are used to detect the inflammation that results from IMI and are necessary to define the prevalence and incidence of subclinical IMI. A threshold of <200,000 cells/mL is considered to be of the most practical value used to define a mammary quarter as healthy. The development of IMI is the most significant factor that influences milk SCC and assessment of monthly values to determine newly and chronically increased SCC can be highly diagnostic for resolving problems with increased bulk tank SCC. Methods to reduce the development of new IMI are well known and adoption of best management practices for milking and herd management have consistently been shown to result in reductions in bulk tank SCC. Implementation of mastitis control programmes can be improved by focusing on three practical recommendations: 1) Farmers should work with their advisors to develop an annual udder health plan that includes clear goals for milk quality. 2) The annual udder health plan should emphasise prevention of new IMI. 3) Farmers must identify and manage chronically infected cows. Proactive management of IMI can be extremely effective in helping farmers produce milk that meets industry standards for milk quality.