The core objective of the Food Biosciences Department is to engage in advanced research and technology development in support of the Irish Agri-Food industry sector. Activities fall into three research areas: Food for Health; Cheese Microbiology and Biochemistry and Milk and Product Quality.

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Food Biosciences

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  • Marine Gelatine from Rest Raw Materials

    Milovanovic, Ivan; Hayes, Maria; Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM); DAFM/07/2017/PDFP (MDPI, 2018-11-27)
    In recent years, demand for consumption of marine foods, and especially fish, has substantially increased worldwide. The majority of collagen available is sourced from mammalian-derived products. Although fish derived gelatine is a viable alternative to mammalian sourced gelatine, there are certain limitations related to the use of fish gelatine that include odour, colour, functional properties, and consistency in its amino acid composition. Chemicals used for pre-treatment, as well as extraction conditions such as temperature and time, can influence the length of polypeptide chains that result and the functional properties of the gelatine. Compared to traditional sources, gelatines derived from fish show significant differences in chemical and physical properties, and great care should be paid to optimization of the production process in order to obtain a product with the best properties for intended applications. The focus of this review is to explore the feasibility of producing gelatine sourced from marine processing by-products using different pre-treatment and extraction strategies with the aim of improving the techno-functional properties of the final product and improving the clean-label status of gelatines. The bioactivities of gelatine hydrolysates are also discussed.
  • Production of protein extracts from Swedish red, green, and brown seaweeds, Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing, Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, and Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux using three different methods

    Harrysson, Hanna; Hayes, Maria; Eimer, Friederike; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Toth, Gunilla B.; Undeland, Ingrid; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Research Council Formas; 2820005; 21210034 (Springer Science, 2018-04-28)
    The demand for vegetable proteins increases globally and seaweeds are considered novel and promising protein sources. However, the tough polysaccharide-rich cell walls and the abundance of polyphenols reduce the extractability and digestibility of seaweed proteins. Therefore, food grade, scalable, and environmentally friendly protein extraction techniques are required. To date, little work has been carried out on developing such methods taking into consideration the structural differences between seaweed species. In this work, three different protein extraction methods were applied to three Swedish seaweeds (Porphyra umbilicalis, Ulva lactuca, and Saccharina latissima). These methods included (I) a traditional method using sonication in water and subsequent ammonium sulfate-induced protein precipitation, (II) the pH-shift protein extraction method using alkaline protein solubilization followed by isoelectric precipitation, and (III) the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE®) method where proteins are extracted after pre-removal of lipids and phlorotannins. The highest protein yields were achieved using the pH-shift method applied to P. umbilicalis (22.6 ± 7.3%) and S. latissima (25.1 ± 0.9%). The traditional method resulted in the greatest protein yield when applied to U. lactuca (19.6 ± 0.8%). However, the protein concentration in the produced extracts was highest for all three species using the pH-shift method (71.0 ± 3.7%, 51.2 ± 2.1%, and 40.7 ± 0.5% for P. umbilicalis, U. lactuca, and S. latissima, respectively). In addition, the pH-shift method was found to concentrate the fatty acids in U. lactuca and S. latissima by 2.2 and 1.6 times, respectively. The pH-shift method can therefore be considered a promising strategy for producing seaweed protein ingredients for use in food and feed.
  • Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides: New and Novel Sources, Characterisation Strategies and Applications

    Hayes, Maria (MDPI, 2018-03-14)
    By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but additionally have nutritional and health maintenance and well-being benefits. Proteins provide energy, but additionally have a wide range of functions from enzymatic activities in the body to bioactivities including those associated with heart health, diabetes-type 2-prevention and mental health maintenance; stress relief as well as a plethora of other health beneficial attributes. Furthermore, proteins play an important role in food manufacture and often provide the binding, water- or oil-holding, emulsifying, foaming or other functional attributes required to ensure optimum sensory and taste benefits for the consumer. The purpose of this issue is to highlight current and new protein sources and their associated functional, nutritional and health benefits as well as best practices for quantifying proteins and bioactive peptides in both a laboratory and industry setting. The bioaccessibility, bioavailability and bioactivities of proteins from dairy, cereal and novel sources including seaweeds and insect protein and how they are measured and the relevance of protein quality measurement methods including the Protein Digestibility Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) are highlighted. In addition, predicted future protein consumption trends and new markets for protein and peptide products are discussed.
  • Recovery of Polyphenols from Brewer’s Spent Grains

    Birsan, Rares; Wilde, Peter; Waldron, Keith; Rai, Dilip K.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2014027 (MDPI, 2019-09-07)
    The recovery of antioxidant polyphenols from light, dark and mix brewer’s spent grain (BSG) using conventional maceration, microwave and ultrasound assisted extraction was investigated. Total polyphenols were measured in the crude (60% acetone), liquor extracts (saponified with 0.75% NaOH) and in their acidified ethyl acetate (EtOAc) partitioned fractions both by spectrophotometry involving Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. Irrespective of the extraction methods used, saponification of BSG yielded higher polyphenols than in the crude extracts. The EtOAc fractionations yielded the highest total phenolic content (TPC) ranging from 3.01 ± 0.19 to 4.71 ± 0.28 mg gallic acid equivalent per g of BSG dry weight. The corresponding total polyphenols quantified by LC-MS/MS ranged from 549.9 ± 41.5 to 2741.1 ± 5.2 µg/g of BSG dry weight. Microwave and ultrasound with the parameters and equipment used did not improve the total polyphenol yield when compared to the conventional maceration method. Furthermore, the spectrophotometric quantification of the liquors overestimated the TPC, while the LC-MS/MS quantification gave a closer representation of the total polyphenols in all the extracts. The total polyphenols were in the following order in the EtOAc fractions: BSG light > BSG Mix > BSG dark, and thus suggested BSG light as a sustainable, low cost source of natural antioxidants that may be tapped for applications in food and phytopharmaceutical industries.
  • Distinct microbiome composition and metabolome exists across subgroups of elite Irish athletes

    O'Donovan, Ciara M.; Madigan, Sharon M.; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Rankin, Alan; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Science Foundation Ireland; National Institute for Health Research; SFI/12/RC/2273; 13/SIRG/2160; et al. (2019-09-18)
    Objectives: The gut microbiome has begun to be characterised in athlete groups, albeit, to date, only across a subset of sports. This study aimed to determine if the gut microbiome and metabolome differed across sports classification groups (SCGs) among elite Irish athletes, many of whom were participating in the 2016 Summer Olympics. Methods: Faecal and urine samples were collected from 37 international level athletes. Faecal samples were prepared for shotgun metagenomic sequencing and faecal and urine samples underwent metabolomic profiling. Results: Differences were observed in the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome of athletes across SCGs. The microbiomes of athletes participating in sports with a high dynamic component were the most distinct compositionally (greater differences in proportions of species), while those of athletes participating in sports with high dynamic and static components were the most functionally distinct (greater differences in functional potential). Additionally, both microbial (faecal) and human (urine) derived metabolites were found to vary between SCGs. In particular cis-aconitate, succinic acid and lactate, in urine samples, and creatinine, in faeces, were found to be significantly different between groups. These differences were evident despite the absence of significant differences in diet, as determined using food frequency questionnaires, which were translated into nutrient intake values using FETA. Conclusions: Differences in the gut microbiome and metabolome between groups, in the absence of dietary changes, indicate a role for training load or type as a contributory factor. Further exploration of this hypothesis has the potential to benefit athletes, aspiring athletes and the general public.
  • Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Anticholinesterase Activities and Phytochemical Profile of Wedd.

    Faraone, Immacolata; Rai, Dilip K.; Russo, Daniela; Chiummiento, Lucia; Fernandez, Eloy; Choudhary, Alka; Milella, Luigi; Regione Basilicata; Fondazione Enrico Mattei DGR; Regional Project ALIMINTEGRA, GO NUTRIBAS; et al. (MDPI, 2019-08-03)
    Oxidative stress is involved in different diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The genus Azorella includes about 70 species of flowering plant species; most of them are commonly used as food and in particular as a tea infusion in the Andean region of South America in folk medicine to treat various chronic diseases. Azorella glabra Wedd. aerial parts were firstly analyzed for their in vitro antioxidant activity using different complementary assays. In particular, radical scavenging activity was tested against biological neutral radical DPPH; ferric reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibitory capacity (FRAP and Beta-Carotene Bleaching tests) were also determined. The Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare data obtained by different assays. Then, the inhibitory ability of samples was investigated against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes involved in diabetes and against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes considered as strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Moreover, the phytochemical profile of the sample showing the highest RACI (1.35) and interesting enzymatic activities (IC50 of 163.54 ± 9.72 and 215.29 ± 17.10 μg/mL in α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, respectively) was subjected to characterization and quantification of its phenolic composition using LC-MS/MS analysis. In fact, the ethyl acetate fraction derived from ethanol extract by liquid/liquid extraction showed 29 compounds, most of them are cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid derivatives, and a terpene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the evaluation of significant biological activities and phytochemical profile of A. glabra, an important source of health-promoting phytochemicals.
  • Impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment on nutritional and polyphenolic contents and bioactivities of light and dark brewer's spent grains

    Kumari, Bibha; Tiwari, Brijesh; Walsh, Des; Griffin, Tomás; Islam, Nahidul; Lyng, James G.; Brunton, Nigel; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; European Union; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-04-30)
    Pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment, at 2.8 kV/cm with 3000 pulses of 20 μs pulse-width, was applied on brewer's spent grains (BSG) followed by aqueous extraction at 55 °C, 220 rpm for 16 h. PEF pre-treatment showed significantly increased yields (p < 0.05) of carbohydrate, protein, starch and reducing sugar in extracts from dark BSG compared to untreated samples. Light BSG extracts had significantly higher (p < 0.05) levels of free d-glucose and total free amino acids (18.5–33.3 and 21–25 mg/g dry weight extract (Dwe)), compared to dark extracts (5 and 1.2 mg/g Dwe respectively). Dark BSG extracts showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) total phenolics (3.97–4.88 mg GAE/g Dwe) compared to light BSG extracts (0.83–1.40 mg GAE/g Dwe). Furthermore, PEF treated light BSG showed higher antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 50 and 25 mg/mL against Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes, respectively compared to the untreated extracts (>50 mg/mL) with lowest MIC value of 1.56 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. All the BSG extracts induced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1 and MIP-1α) confirming immunomodulatory activity.
  • Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from potato peels: profiling and kinetic modelling

    Kumari, Bibha; Tiwari, Brijesh; Hossain, Mohammad B; Rai, Dilip K.; Brunton, Nigel; Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine; FIRM/11/F/050 (Wiley, 2017-02-14)
    Ultrasound‐assisted extraction (UAE) at 33 and 42 kHz has been investigated in the extraction of polyphenols from peels of two potato varieties, cream‐skinned Lady Claire (LC) and pink‐skinned Lady Rosetta (LR), commonly used in snack food production. Extraction efficacy between the UAE‐untreated (control) and the UAE‐treated extracts was assessed on the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities (DPPH and FRAP). Application of UAE showed significantly higher recovery of phenolic compounds compared to solid–liquid extraction process alone. Lower ultrasonic frequency (33 kHz) was more effective in recovering polyphenols compared to 42 kHz ultrasonic treatment. The liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry revealed that chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the most prevalent phenolics in LR peels, whereas caffeic acid was dominant in LC peels. Peleg's equation showed a good correlation (R2 > 0.92) between the experimental values and the predicted values on the kinetics of UAE of phenolic compounds.
  • Optimisation and validation of ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of potato steroidal alkaloids

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Rai, Dilip K.; Brunton, Nigel; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/050 (Elsevier, 2015-06-09)
    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) method for quantification of potato steroidal alkaloids, namely α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine was developed and validated. Three different column chemistries, i.e. ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) C18, hydrophilic lipophilic interaction and amide columns, were assessed. The BEH C18 column showed best separation and sensitivity for the alkaloids. Validation data (inter-day and intra-day combined) for accuracy and recovery ranged from 94.3 to 107.7% and 97.0 to 103.5%, respectively. The accuracy data were within the acceptable range of 15% as outlined in the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) guidelines. The recovery data were consistent and reproducible with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 6.2 to 9.7%. In addition, precision of the method also met the criteria of the USFDA with CV values lower than 15% even at lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), while the permissible variation is considered acceptable below 20%. The limit of detection and LLOQ of the four alkaloids were in the range of 0.001–0.004 μg/mL whereas the linearities of the standard curves were between 0.980 and 0.995.
  • Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Foods and Derived Products Containing Ellagitannins and Anthocyanins on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers: Analysis of Factors Influencing Variability of the Individual Responses

    García-Conesa, María-Teresa; Chambers, Karen; Combet, Emilie; Pinto, Paula; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Mena, Pedro; Konic Ristic, Aleksandra; Hollands, Wendy; et al. (MDPI, 2018-02-28)
    Understanding interindividual variability in response to dietary polyphenols remains essential to elucidate their effects on cardiometabolic disease development. A meta-analysis of 128 randomized clinical trials was conducted to investigate the effects of berries and red grapes/wine as sources of anthocyanins and of nuts and pomegranate as sources of ellagitannins on a range of cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. The potential influence of various demographic and lifestyle factors on the variability in the response to these products were explored. Both anthocyanin- and ellagitannin-containing products reduced total-cholesterol with nuts and berries yielding more significant effects than pomegranate and grapes. Blood pressure was significantly reduced by the two main sources of anthocyanins, berries and red grapes/wine, whereas waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were most significantly lowered by the ellagitannin-products, particularly nuts. Additionally, we found an indication of a small increase in HDL-cholesterol most significant with nuts and, in flow-mediated dilation by nuts and berries. Most of these effects were detected in obese/overweight people but we found limited or non-evidence in normoweight individuals or of the influence of sex or smoking status. The effects of other factors, i.e., habitual diet, health status or country where the study was conducted, were inconsistent and require further investigation.
  • Current Status and Future Prospects of Marine Natural Products (MNPs) as Antimicrobials

    Choudhary, Alka; Naughton, Lynn; Montánchez, Itxaso; Dobson, Alan; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/009 (MDPI, 2017-08-28)
    The marine environment is a rich source of chemically diverse, biologically active natural products, and serves as an invaluable resource in the ongoing search for novel antimicrobial compounds. Recent advances in extraction and isolation techniques, and in state-of-the-art technologies involved in organic synthesis and chemical structure elucidation, have accelerated the numbers of antimicrobial molecules originating from the ocean moving into clinical trials. The chemical diversity associated with these marine-derived molecules is immense, varying from simple linear peptides and fatty acids to complex alkaloids, terpenes and polyketides, etc. Such an array of structurally distinct molecules performs functionally diverse biological activities against many pathogenic bacteria and fungi, making marine-derived natural products valuable commodities, particularly in the current age of antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we have highlighted several marine-derived natural products (and their synthetic derivatives), which have gained recognition as effective antimicrobial agents over the past five years (2012–2017). These natural products have been categorized based on their chemical structures and the structure-activity mediated relationships of some of these bioactive molecules have been discussed. Finally, we have provided an insight into how genome mining efforts are likely to expedite the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds.
  • Profiling of Phytochemicals in Tissues from Sclerocarya birrea by HPLC-MS and Their Link with Antioxidant Activity

    Russo, Daniela; Kenny, Owen; Smyth, Thomas J.; Milella, Luigi; Diop, Moussoukhoye Sissokho; Rai, Dilip K.; Brunton, Nigel; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Hindawi, 2013-04-29)
    High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was employed to investigate the differences in phytochemicals in roots, bark, and leaf of Sclerocarya birrea (marula) for methanol and water extracts that exhibited the best antioxidant activities. As many as 36 compounds were observed in the extracts of these tissues of which 27 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified. The HPLC-MS/MS results showed flavonoid glycosides were prominent in leaf extracts while the galloylated tannins were largely in bark and root extracts. Four flavonoid glycosides that were reported for the first time in the marula leaf have been identified. The HPLC-MS/MS studies also illustrated different degrees (highest degree = 3) of oligomerisation and galloylation of tannins in the bark and root extracts.
  • Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Characterization of Senecio clivicolus Wedd.

    Faraone, Immacolata; Rai, Dilip K.; Chiummiento, Lucia; Fernandez, Eloy; Choudhary, Alka; Prinzo, Flavio; Milella, Luigi; University of Basilicata; D.G.R. 1490 (MDPI, 2018-09-29)
    Antioxidant phytochemicals play a key role in oxidative stress control and in the prevention of related disorders, such as premature aging, degenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant activity and the phytochemical profile of Senecio clivicolus Wedd., a perennial shrub, belonging to the Asteraceae family. Despite the wide interest of this family, this specie has not been investigated yet. S. clivicolus aerial parts were extracted with 96% ethanol. Then, the ethanol extract was fractionated by liquid/liquid extraction using an increasing solvents polarity. Total polyphenol and terpenoid contents were measured. Moreover, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by six different complementary in vitro assays. The Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare data obtained by different tests. The sample showing the highest RACI was subjected to characterization and quantitation of its phenolic composition using LC-MS/MS analysis. The ethyl acetate fraction, investigated by LC-MS/MS analysis, showed 30 compounds, most of them are chlorogenic acid and flavonoid derivatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the evaluation of antioxidant activity and phytochemical profile of S. clivicolus, underlying the importance of this species as a source of health-promoting phytochemicals.
  • Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Anticholinesterase Activities and Phytochemical Profile of Azorella glabra Wedd

    Faraone, Immacolata; Rai, Dilip K.; Russo, Daniela; Chiummiento, Lucia; Fernandez, Eloy; Choudhary, Alka; Milella, Luigi; Regione Basilicata; Fondazione Enrico Mattei DGR; ALIMINTEGRA, GO NUTRIBAS; et al. (MDPI, 2019-08-03)
    Oxidative stress is involved in different diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The genus Azorella includes about 70 species of flowering plant species; most of them are commonly used as food and in particular as a tea infusion in the Andean region of South America in folk medicine to treat various chronic diseases. Azorella glabra Wedd. aerial parts were firstly analyzed for their in vitro antioxidant activity using different complementary assays. In particular, radical scavenging activity was tested against biological neutral radical DPPH; ferric reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibitory capacity (FRAP and Beta-Carotene Bleaching tests) were also determined. The Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare data obtained by different assays. Then, the inhibitory ability of samples was investigated against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes involved in diabetes and against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes considered as strategy for the treatment of Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Moreover, the phytochemical profile of the sample showing the highest RACI (1.35) and interesting enzymatic activities (IC50 of 163.54 ± 9.72 and 215.29 ± 17.10 μg/mL in α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, respectively) was subjected to characterization and quantification of its phenolic composition using LC-MS/MS analysis. In fact, the ethyl acetate fraction derived from ethanol extract by liquid/liquid extraction showed 29 compounds, most of them are cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid derivatives, and a terpene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the evaluation of significant biological activities and phytochemical profile of A. glabra, an important source of health-promoting phytochemicals.
  • Enrichment and Assessment of the Contributions of the Major Polyphenols to the Total Antioxidant Activity of Onion Extracts: A Fractionation by Flash Chromatography Approach

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Lebelle, Justine; Birsan, Rares; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 06/NITAFRC/6 (MDPI, 2018-11-27)
    The present study extensively fractionated crude red onion extract in order to identify the polyphenols which contributed most in the total antioxidant capacity of the onion extract using a flash chromatography system. The flash separations produced 70 fractions which were tested for their total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Out of these 70 fractions, four fractions which were representatives of the four major peaks of the flash chromatograms, were further analysed for their constituent polyphenols using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The main contributor of onion antioxidant capacity is quercetin glycoside followed by quercetin aglycone although quercetin aglycone had higher antioxidant capacity than its glycosidic counterparts. High abundance of quercetin glycosides such as quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside had compensated for their relatively low antioxidant capacities. A Higher degree of glycosylation resulted in lower antioxidant capacity. The fractionation approach also contributed in enrichment of the onion antioxidant polyphenols. A >9 folds enrichment was possible by discarding the early fractions (fractions 1–15) which contained the main bulk of the extracts, predominantly sugars.
  • Recovery of Steroidal Alkaloids from Potato Peels Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction

    Rawson, Ashish; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Brunton, Nigel; Hossain, Mohammad B; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 08/RD/AFRC/673 (MDPI, 2015-05-13)
    A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels) compared to conventional solid–liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels). Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol) for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively
  • Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries

    Brunton, Nigel; Hossain, Mohammad B; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11F/050 (MDPI, 2016-03-25)
    The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content.
  • A Review of Extraction and Analysis of Bioactives in Oat and Barley and Scope for Use of Novel Food Processing Technologies

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K.; Brunton, Nigel; Hossain, Mohammad B; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine.; 11/SF/317 (MDPI, 2015-06-12)
    Oat and barely are cereal crops mainly used as animal feed and for the purposes of malting and brewing, respectively. Some studies have indicated that consumption of oat and barley rich foods may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, type II diabetes and cancer. Whilst there is no absolute consensus, some of these benefits may be linked to presence of compounds such as phenolics, vitamin E and β-glucan in these cereals. A number of benefits have also been linked to the lipid component (sterols, fatty acids) and the proteins and bioactive peptides in oats and barley. Since the available evidence is pointing toward the possible health benefits of oat and barley components, a number of authors have examined techniques for recovering them from their native sources. In the present review, we summarise and examine the range of conventional techniques that have been used for the purpose of extraction and detection of these bioactives. In addition, the recent advances in use of novel food processing technologies as a substitute to conventional processes for extraction of bioactives from oats and barley, has been discussed.
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Polyphenols in Lamiaceae Plants—A Review

    Tzima, Katerina; Brunton, Nigel P.; Rai, Dilip K.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2016038 (MDPI, 2018-03-26)
    Lamiaceae species are promising potential sources of natural antioxidants, owing to their high polyphenol content. In addition, increasing scientific and epidemiological evidence have associated consumption of foods rich in polyphenols with health benefits such as decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases mediated through anti-inflammatory effects. The complex and diverse nature of polyphenols and the huge variation in their levels in commonly consumed herbs make their analysis challenging. Innovative robust analytical tools are constantly developing to meet these challenges. In this review, we present advances in the state of the art for the identification and quantification of polyphenols in Lamiaceae species. Novel chromatographic techniques that have been employed in the past decades are discussed, ranging from ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography to hyphenated spectroscopic methods, whereas performance characteristics such as selectivity and specificity are also summarized.
  • The Effect of High Pressure Processing on Antioxidant Activity of Irish Potato Cultivars

    Tsikrika, Konstantina; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 17/F/299 (MDPI, 2019-04-16)
    The effect of High Pressure Processing (HPP) on Irish potato cultivars’ antioxidant activity (AOA) was examined. High Pressure Processing at 600 MPa for 3 min was applied to two coloured (Rooster and Kerr’s Pink) and two white (Saxon and Gemson) Irish potato varieties. Antioxidant activity was assayed spectrophotometrically by ferric reducing antioxidant power and diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods. No statistically significant (p ≥ 0.05) change in antioxidant activity was observed in both the AOA methods irrespective of the HPP treatments, although a slight increase in the activity was noted in the majority of the HPP treated samples. This implies that HPP treatment has little role in improving the functional qualities, and can be tailored to improve the quality and safety of the commonly consumed potatoes.

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