• Administration of a live culture of Lactococcus lactis DPC 3147 into the bovine mammary gland stimulates the local host immune response, particularly IL-1β and IL-8 gene expression

      Beecher, Christine; Daly, Mairead; Berry, Donagh; Klostermann, Katja; Flynn, James; Meaney, William J; Hill, Colin; McCarthy, Tommie V; Ross, R Paul; Giblin, Linda; et al. (Cambridge University Press: Published for the Institute of Food Research and the Hannah Research Institute, 18/05/2009)
      Mastitis is one of the most costly diseases to the dairy farming industry. Conventional antibiotic therapy is often unsatisfactory for successful treatment of mastitis and alternative treatments are continually under investigation. We have previously demonstrated, in two separate field trials, that a probiotic culture, Lactococcus lactis DPC 3147, was comparable to antibiotic therapy to treat bovine mastitis. To understand the mode of action of this therapeutic, we looked at the detailed immune response of the host to delivery of this live strain directly into the mammary gland of six healthy dairy cows. All animals elicited signs of udder inflammation 7 h post infusion. At this time, clots were visible in the milk of all animals in the investigation. The most pronounced increase in immune gene expression was observed in Interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-8, with highest expression corresponding to peaks in somatic cell count. Infusion with a live culture of a Lc. lactis leads to a rapid and considerable innate immune response.
    • Delivery of β-carotene to the in vitro intestinal barrier using nanoemulsions with lecithin or sodium caseinate as emulsifiers

      Gasa-Falcon, Ariadna; Arranz, Elena; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Giblin, Linda; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad; Enterprise Ireland; European Union; Science Foundation Ireland; Agencia de Gestio d’Ajuts Universitaris I de Recerca; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-01)
      To increase the intestinal delivery of dietary β-carotene, there is a need to develop nanostructured food systems to encapsulate this fat soluble bioactive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioacessibility and bioavailability across the intestinal barrier of β-carotene-enriched nanoemulsions stabilised with two emulsifiers (lecithin or sodium caseinate) by coupling an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with two in vitro cell culture models (Caco-2 or co-culture of Caco-2/HT29-MTX). Nanoemulsions stabilised with lecithin had significantly higher β-carotene in the gastrointestinal digested micellar fraction, lower β-carotene in the Caco-2 (and Caco-2/HT29-MTX) apical compartment and significantly higher β-carotene in Caco-2 cellular content compared to β-carotene-enriched nanoemulsions stabilised with sodium caseinate. Finally, to assess anti-inflammatory activity of digested nanoemulsions, lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages were exposed to Caco- 2 basolateral samples with levels of TNF-α and IL-β, subsequently quantified. A TNF-α response from stimulated THP-1 macrophages was elicited by basolateral samples, regardless the emulsifier used to formulate nanoemulsions. This study demonstrated that β-carotene permeability is influenced by the food derived emulsifier used for stabilising nanoemulsions, indicating that composition may be a critical factor for β-carotene delivery.
    • Protein quality and quantity influence the effect of dietary fat on weight gain and tissue partitioning via host-microbiota changes

      Nychyk, Oleksandr; Barton, Wiley; Rudolf, Agata M.; Boscaini, Serena; Walsh, Aaron; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F.S.; Giblin, Linda; Cormican, Paul; Chen, Liang; Piotrowicz, Yolanda; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-05-11)
      We investigated how protein quantity (10%–30%) and quality (casein and whey) interact with dietary fat (20%–55%) to affect metabolic health in adult mice. Although dietary fat was the main driver of body weight gain and individual tissue weight, high (30%) casein intake accentuated and high whey intake reduced the negative metabolic aspects of high fat. Jejunum and liver transcriptomics revealed increased intestinal permeability, low-grade inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and liver dysfunction in casein-fed but not whey-fed animals. These differential effects were accompanied by altered gut size and microbial functions related to amino acid degradation and lipid metabolism. Fecal microbiota transfer confirmed that the casein microbiota increases and the whey microbiota impedes weight gain. These data show that the effects of dietary fat on weight gain and tissue partitioning are further influenced by the quantity and quality of the associated protein, primarily via effects on the microbiota.
    • Whey for Sarcopenia; Can Whey Peptides, Hydrolysates or Proteins Play a Beneficial Role?

      Gilmartin, Sarah; O’Brien, Nora; Giblin, Linda; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; FIRM 15F604-TOMI; 16/RC/3835-VistaMilk (MDPI AG, 2020-06-05)
      As the human body ages, skeletal muscle loses its mass and strength. It is estimated that in 10% of individuals over the age of 60, this muscle frailty has progressed to sarcopenia. Biomarkers of sarcopenia include increases in inflammatory markers and oxidative stress markers and decreases in muscle anabolic markers. Whey is a high-quality, easily digested dairy protein which is widely used in the sports industry. This review explores the evidence that whey protein, hydrolysates or peptides may have beneficial effects on sarcopenic biomarkers in myoblast cell lines, in aged rodents and in human dietary intervention trials with the older consumer. A daily dietary supplementation of 35 g of whey is likely to improve sarcopenic biomarkers in frail or sarcopenia individuals. Whey supplementation, consumed by an older, healthy adult certainly improves muscle mTOR signaling, but exercise appears to have the greatest benefit to older muscle. In vitro cellular assays are central for bioactive and bioavailable peptide identification and to determine their mechanism of action on ageing muscle.