• 48 Altered gut microbiota in stable patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) compared to controls and its relationship with intravenous (IV) antibiotic usage and lung function

      Burke, D.G.; Fouhy, Fiona; Rea, Mary; Harrison, M.J.; STANTON, CATHERINE; O’Sullivan, Orla; Murphy, D. M.; O'Callaghan, G. P.; Eustace, J. A.; Shanahan, F.; et al. (Elsevier, 2015-06-05)
      Objective CF is associated with altered digestive function and thus nutrient availability for gut microbes in addition to altered gut microbiota, compared with healthy controls. Equally intensive antibiotic and nutritional therapy may further compound this. We present results from the largest CF gut microbiota study to date.
    • Bifidobacterium longum counters the effects of obesity: Partial successful translation from rodent to human

      Schellekens, Harriët; Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; van de Wouw, Marcel; Long-Smith, Caitriona M.; Mitchell, Avery; Strain, Conall; Berding, Kirsten; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz, F. S.; Rea, Kieran; Golubeva, Anna V.; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-01-31)
      BackgroundThe human gut microbiota has emerged as a key factor in the development of obesity. Certain probiotic strains have shown anti-obesity effects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Bifidobacterium longum APC1472 has anti-obesity effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and whether B. longum APC1472 supplementation reduces body-mass index (BMI) in healthy overweight/obese individuals as the primary outcome. B. longum APC1472 effects on waist-to-hip ratio (W/H ratio) and on obesity-associated plasma biomarkers were analysed as secondary outcomes. MethodsB. longum APC1472 was administered to HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice in drinking water for 16 weeks. In the human intervention trial, participants received B. longum APC1472 or placebo supplementation for 12 weeks, during which primary and secondary outcomes were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. FindingsB. longum APC1472 supplementation was associated with decreased bodyweight, fat depots accumulation and increased glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. While, in healthy overweight/obese adults, the supplementation of B. longum APC1472 strain did not change primary outcomes of BMI (0.03, 95% CI [-0.4, 0.3]) or W/H ratio (0.003, 95% CI [-0.01, 0.01]), a positive effect on the secondary outcome of fasting blood glucose levels was found (-0.299, 95% CI [-0.44, -0.09]). InterpretationThis study shows a positive translational effect of B. longum APC1472 on fasting blood glucose from a preclinical mouse model of obesity to a human intervention study in otherwise healthy overweight and obese individuals. This highlights the promising potential of B. longum APC1472 to be developed as a valuable supplement in reducing specific markers of obesity. FundingThis research was funded in part by Science Foundation Ireland in the form of a Research Centre grant (SFI/12/RC/2273) to APC Microbiome Ireland and by a research grant from Cremo S.A.
    • Improvements in sleep indices during exam stress due to consumption of a Bifidobacterium longum

      Moloney, Gerard M.; Long-Smith, Caitriona M.; Murphy, Amy; Dorland, Danielle; Hojabri, Sara Firuzeh; Ramirez, Loreto Olavarría; Marin, David Campos; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz, F. S.; Cusack, Anne-Marie; Berding, Kirsten; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-01-31)
      Targeting the gut microbiome as an effective therapeutic strategy for psychological disorders has shown promise in recent years. Variation in the composition of the microbiota and restoration of a stable microbiome using targeted interventions (psychobiotics) including Bifidobacteria have shown promise in pre-clinical studies, but more human data is required on the potential health benefits of these live microorganisms. Bifidobacterium including Bif. longum 1714 has been shown to dampen the effects of acute stress in humans. However, its effects over a period of prolonged stress have not been examined. A randomised, placebo-controlled, repeated measures, cross-over intervention study was conducted to examine the effects of a probiotic intervention on measures of stress, cognitive performance, and mood in healthy human volunteers. Twenty male students participated in this crossover study. Post-intervention assessments took place during the university exam period, which was used as a naturalistic chronic stressor. Self-reported measures of stress, depression, sleep quality, physical activity, gastrointestinal symptoms, cognition, and mood were assessed by questionnaire. In addition, tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were administered to all participants. Stress and depression scores increased in both placebo and probiotic treated groups during the exam period. While overall sleep quality and duration of sleep improved significantly in the probiotic treated group during exam stress compared with the placebo treated group, B. longum 1714, similar to placebo treatment, showed no efficacy in improving measures of working memory, visual memory, sustained attention or perception. Overall, while B. longum 1714 shows promise in improving sleep quality and duration, it did not alleviate symptoms of chronic stress, depression, or any measure of cognitive assessment. Thus, further mechanistic studies into the ability of B. longum 1714 to modulate sleep during prolonged periods of stress are now warranted.