• Cold Atmospheric Plasma Stimulates Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis to Repair Oxidised Membrane and Enhance Uptake of Nanomaterial in Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

      He, Zhonglei; Liu, Kangze; Scally, Laurence; Manaloto, Eline; Gunes, Sebnem; Ng, Sing Wei; Maher, Marcus; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Byrne, Hugh J.; Bourke, Paula; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-04-24)
      Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) enhances uptake and accumulation of nanoparticles and promotes synergistic cytotoxicity against cancer cells. However, the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the enhanced uptake of theranostic nanomaterials by CAP. Numerical modelling of the uptake of gold nanoparticle into U373MG Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells predicts that CAP may introduce a new uptake route. We demonstrate that cell membrane repair pathways play the main role in this stimulated new uptake route, following non-toxic doses of dielectric barrier discharge CAP. CAP treatment induces cellular membrane damage, mainly via lipid peroxidation as a result of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Membranes rich in peroxidised lipids are then trafficked into cells via membrane repairing endocytosis. We confirm that the enhanced uptake of nanomaterials is clathrin-dependent using chemical inhibitors and silencing of gene expression. Therefore, CAP-stimulated membrane repair increases endocytosis and accelerates the uptake of gold nanoparticles into U373MG cells after CAP treatment. We demonstrate the utility of CAP to model membrane oxidative damage in cells and characterise a previously unreported mechanism of membrane repair to trigger nanomaterial uptake. This knowledge will underpin the development of new delivery strategies for theranostic nanoparticles into cancer cells.