• Cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation promotes changes in the intestinal microbiome in mice.

      Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Patterson, Angela M; Cotter, Paul D.; Beraza, Naiara; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; BB/J004529/1; BBS/E/F/00044509; BB/R012490/1; BBS/E/F/000PR10355; BB/CCG1860/1 (Nature, 2019-08-23)
      Increasing evidence point to the relevance of intestinal disfunction and changes in the microbiome composition during chronic liver disease. More specifically, recent studies have highlighted that cholestatic diseases associate with a reduction in the microbiome diversity in patients. Still, the dynamics of the changes in the microbiome composition observed, as well as their implication in contributing to the pathogenesis of this disease remain largely undefined. Hence, experimental mouse models resembling the human pathogenesis are crucial to move forward our understanding on the mechanisms underpinning cholestatic disease and to enable the development of effective therapeutics. Our results show that the bile duct ligation (BDL) experimental model of cholestasis leads to rapid and significant changes in the microbiome diversity, with more than 100 OTUs being significantly different in faecal samples obtained from WT mice at 3 days and 7 days after BDL when compared to control animals. Changes in the microbial composition in mice after BDL included the enrichment of Akkermansia, Prevotella, Bacteroides and unclassified Ruminococcaceae in parallel with a drastic reduction of the presence of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In conclusion, our results support that bile duct ligation induces changes in the microbiome that partly resemble the gut microbial changes observed during human cholestatic disease.