Browsing Food Biosciences by Author "Patterson, E."
Gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactobacilli positively affect metabolism and depressive-like behaviour in a mouse model of metabolic syndromePatterson, E.; Ryan, P. M.; Wiley, N.; Carafa, I.; Sherwin, E.; Moloney, G.; Franciosi, E.; Mandal, R.; Wishart, D. S.; Tuohy, K.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-11-08)Metabolic and neuroactive metabolite production represents one of the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota can impact health. One such metabolite, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), can modulate glucose homeostasis and alter behavioural patterns in the host. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC6108 has the potential to increase levels of circulating insulin in healthy rats. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the efcacy of endogenous microbial GABA production in improving metabolic and behavioural outcomes in a mouse model of metabolic dysfunction. Diet-induced obese and metabolically dysfunctional mice received one of two GABA-producing strains, L. brevis DPC6108 or L. brevis DSM32386, daily for 12 weeks. After 8 and 10 weeks of intervention, the behavioural and metabolic profles of the mice were respectively assessed. Intervention with both L. brevis strains attenuated several abnormalities associated with metabolic dysfunction, causing a reduction in the accumulation of mesenteric adipose tissue, increased insulin secretion following glucose challenge, improved plasma cholesterol clearance and reduced despair-like behaviour and basal corticosterone production during the forced swim test. Taken together, this exploratory dataset indicates that intervention with GABA-producing lactobacilli has the potential to improve metabolic and depressive- like behavioural abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome in mice.
Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat modelMarques, T. M.; Patterson, E.; Wall, Rebecca; O'Sullivan, Orla; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Ross, R Paul; STANTON, CATHERINE; et al. (Wageningen Academic Publishers, 26/05/2016)The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~109microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~109 L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (P<0.05), but did not alter other metabolic markers in healthy rats. Diabetes induced by STZ injection decreased body weight (P<0.05), increased intestinal length (P<0.05) and stimulated water and food intake. Insulin was decreased (P<0.05), whereas glucose was increased (P<0.001) in all diabetic groups, compared with non-diabetic controls. A decrease (P<0.01) in glucose levels was observed in diabetic rats receiving L. brevis DPC 6108, compared with diabetic-controls. Both the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota were affected by diabetes. Microbial diversity in diabetic rats supplemented with low GABA was not reduced (P>0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.