• Dietary Supplementation with a Magnesium-Rich Marine Mineral Blend Enhances the Diversity of Gastrointestinal Microbiota

      Crowley, Erin; Long-Smith, Caitriona; Murphy, Amy; Patterson, Elaine; Murphy, Kiera; O’Gorman, Denise; Stanton, Catherine; Nolan, Yvonne; Science Foundation Ireland; European Union; et al. (MDPI AG, 2018-06-20)
      Accumulating evidence demonstrates that dietary supplementation with functional food ingredients play a role in systemic and brain health as well as in healthy ageing. Conversely, deficiencies in calcium and magnesium as a result of the increasing prevalence of a high fat/high sugar “Western diet” have been associated with health problems such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as metabolic, immune, and psychiatric disorders. It is now recognized that modulating the diversity of gut microbiota, the population of intestinal bacteria, through dietary intervention can significantly impact upon gut health as well as systemic and brain health. In the current study, we show that supplementation with a seaweed and seawater-derived functional food ingredient rich in bioactive calcium and magnesium (0.1% supplementation) as well as 70 other trace elements, significantly enhanced the gut microbial diversity in adult male rats. Given the significant impact of gut microbiota on health, these results position this marine multi-mineral blend (MMB) as a promising digestive-health promoting functional food ingredient.
    • Recombinant Incretin-Secreting Microbe Improves Metabolic Dysfunction in High-Fat Diet Fed Rodents

      Ryan, Paul M; Patterson, Elaine; Kent, Robert M.; Stack, Helena; O’Connor, Paula M.; Murphy, Kiera; Peterson, Veronica L.; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David S.; Dinan, Timothy G.; et al. (Springer Nature, 2017-10-19)
      The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and its analogues represent a new generation of anti-diabetic drugs, which have also demonstrated propensity to modulate host lipid metabolism. Despite this, drugs of this nature are currently limited to intramuscular administration routes due to intestinal degradation. The aim of this study was to design a recombinant microbial delivery vector for a GLP-1 analogue and assess the efficacy of the therapeutic in improving host glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism in diet induced obese rodents. Diet-induced obese animals received either Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 transformed to express a long-acting analogue of GLP-1 or the isogenic control microbe which solely harbored the pNZ44 plasmid. Short-term GLP-1 microbe intervention in rats reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol substantially. Conversely, extended GLP-1 microbe intervention improved glucose-dependent insulin secretion, glucose metabolism and cholesterol metabolism, compared to the high-fat control group. Interestingly, the microbe significantly attenuated the adiposity associated with the model and altered the serum lipidome, independently of GLP-1 secretion. These data indicate that recombinant incretin-secreting microbes may offer a novel and safe means of managing cholesterol metabolism and diet induced dyslipidaemia, as well as insulin sensitivity in metabolic dysfunction.