• Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

      Giblin, Linda; Butler, Stephen T.; Kearney, Breda M.; Waters, Sinead M.; Callanan, Michael J.; Berry, Donagh; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Irish Dairy Levy Research Trust; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; RSF-06-0353; et al. (Biomed Central, 29/07/2010)
      Background: Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results: All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein concentration and calf perinatal mortality. It had a tendency to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The G allele of LEP-1238 was associated (P < 0.05) with reduced milk fat concentration, reduced milk protein concentration, longer gestation length and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with an increase in calving difficulty, calf perinatal mortality and somatic cells in the milk. LEP-963 exhibited an association (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and gestation length. It also tended to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The R25C SNP associated (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and length of gestation. The T allele of the Y7F SNP significantly associated with reduced angularity (P < 0.01) and reduced milk protein yield (P < 0.05). There was also a tendency (P < 0.1) for Y7F to associate with increased body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P < 0.1). A80V associated with reduced survival in the herd (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C) associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.
    • Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and post-insemination plane of nutrition on systemic concentrations of metabolic analytes, progesterone, hepatic gene expression and embryo development and survival in beef heifers

      Doyle, D. N.; Lonergan, P.; Diskin, Michael G.; Pierce, K.M.; Kelly, Alan K; STANTON, CATHERINE; Waters, Sinead M.; Parr, M. H.; Kenny, David A.; Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-12-26)
      Nutrition, and particularly dietary energy intake, plays a fundamental role in reproductive function in cattle. There is some evidence that supplemental omega-3 dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can exert positive effects on fertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation, post-insemination energy plane of nutrition and their interaction on embryo survival in cattle. Crossbred beef heifers (n = 185) were individually offered barley straw ad libitum and 6 kg DM of concentrate supplemented with either a rumen-protected source of saturated fatty acid (palmitic; control, CON) or a partially rumen-protected n-3 PUFA-enriched supplement (n-3 PUFA). Estrous was synchronised using two injections of PG administered at 11-d intervals and following artificial insemination (AI = Day 0) 179 heifers exhibiting oestrus were inseminated and assigned to one of two dietary treatments: (i) remain on their pre-insemination high dietary plane of nutrition (High) or (ii) restricted to 0.6 × estimated maintenance energy requirements (Low) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The heifers were then maintained on their assigned diets until slaughter and embryo recovery on Day 16 (n = 92) or pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound scanning at Day 30 post-AI (n = 87). Plasma concentrations of fatty acids, metabolites, insulin, progesterone (P4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured at appropriate intervals. Hepatic expression of mRNA for aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C), cytochrome P450 2C (CYP 2C) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A) was examined. The n-3 PUFA supplementation increased plasma n-3 PUFA concentration (P < 0.05) and reduced n-6: n-3 PUFA ratio (P < 0.05). Plasma IGF-1 was higher for n-3 PUFA relative to the CON (P < 0.05) and for High compared with Low plane of nutrition post-AI (P < 0.05) groups. A low plane of nutrition post-AI increased plasma concentrations of progesterone from Days 7–16 after insemination (P < 0.001) but reduced embryo length (P < 0.001). Supplementation with n-3 PUFA reduced and tended to reduce hepatic expression of CYP2C (P = 0.01) and CYP3A (P = 0.08), respectively. However, while dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and an abrupt reduction in nutrient status following insemination elevated plasma concentrations of n-3 PUFA and mid and late phase P4, respectively, there was no effect of either PUFA supplementation or post-insemination plane of nutrition on embryo survival.
    • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene are associated with performance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

      Mullen, Michael P.; Berry, Donagh; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran Oliver; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A; Meade, Kieran G; Waters, Sinead M.; et al. (Frontiers Media SA, 16/02/2011)
      Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5′ promoter, intronic, and 3′ regulatory regions, encompassing ∼5 kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P < 0.05) were identified between six SNPs (four novel and two previously identified) and milk composition, survival, body condition score, and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T) in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P < 0.05) with increased cow carcass weight (i.e., an indicator of mature cow size). Novel SNPs were identified in the 3′ region of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with functional survival and chest width. The remaining four SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation, and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle.