• Bacterial conjugated linoleic acid production and their applications

      Yang, Bo; Gao, He; STANTON, CATHERINE; Ross, R Paul; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Wei; National Natural Science Foundation of China; National Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-09-07)
      Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to exert various potential physiological properties including anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, anti-cardiovascular and anti-diabetic activities, and consequently has been considered as a promising food supplement. Bacterial biosynthesis of CLA is an attractive approach for commercial production due to its high isomer-selectivity and convenient purification process. Many bacterial species have been reported to convert free linoleic acid (LA) to CLA, hitherto only the precise CLA-producing mechanisms in Propionibacterium acnes and Lactobacillus plantarum have been illustrated completely, prompting the development of recombinant technology used in CLA production. The purpose of the article is to review the bacterial CLA producers as well as the recent progress on describing the mechanism of microbial CLA-production. Furthermore, the advances and potential in the heterologous expression of CLA genetic determinants will be presented.
    • Comparative genomic analyses of Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from Chinese subjects

      Huang, Dan; Yang, Bo; Chen, Yang; STANTON, CATHERINE; Ross, R Paul; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; National Natural Science Foundation of China; National First-Class Discipline Program of Food Science and Technology; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-31)
      Lactobacillus rhamnosus has been found in many niches, including human intestine, vagina, mouth and dairy products. To intensively investigate the genomic diversity of this species, draft genomes of 70 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from different Chinese subjects were sequenced and further investigated. The pan-genome of L. rhamnosus was open. And gene-trait matching (GTM) was done to explore the carbohydrate utilization ability and antibiotic resistance, and to establish a pattern of gene existence/absence and growth/absence. There were no significant correlations between genetic diversity of the strains and the age or region of the donors. The current results extend the understanding of L. rhamnosus, which could be used as a reference for subsequent research as well as mining and application of the species.
    • Comparative Genomics Analysis of Lactobacillus ruminis from Different Niches

      Wang, Shuo; Yang, Bo; Ross, R. Paul; STANTON, CATHERINE; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Jiangsu Province; 31771953; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-01-08)
      Lactobacillus ruminis is a commensal motile lactic acid bacterium living in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Although a few genomes of L. ruminis were published, most of them were animal derived. To explore the genetic diversity and potential niche-specific adaptation changes of L. ruminis, in the current work, draft genomes of 81 L. ruminis strains isolated from human, bovine, piglet, and other animals were sequenced, and comparative genomic analysis was performed. The genome size and GC content of L. ruminis on average were 2.16 Mb and 43.65%, respectively. Both the origin and the sampling distance of these strains had a great influence on the phylogenetic relationship. For carbohydrate utilization, the human-derived L. ruminis strains had a higher consistency in the utilization of carbon source compared to the animal-derived strains. L. ruminis mainly increased the competitiveness of niches by producing class II bacteriocins. The type of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system presented in L. ruminis was mainly subtype IIA. The diversity of CRISPR/Cas locus depended on the high denaturation of spacer number and sequence, although cas1 protein was relatively conservative. The genetic differences in those newly sequenced L. ruminis strains highlighted the gene gains and losses attributed to niche adaptations.
    • Comparative genomics and gene-trait matching analysis of Bifidobacterium breve from Chinese children

      Liu, Rui; Yang, Bo; STANTON, CATHERINE; Ross, Paul; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; National Natural Science Foundation of China; National First-Class Discipline Program of Food Science and Technology; the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
      Bifidobacterium breve is one of the dominant Bifidobacterial species in children. In the current work, 46 strains of B. breve isolated from fecal samples of Chinese children were analyzed using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics to explore their genetic diversity, as well as genotype and phenotype analysis for carbohydrate utilization and antibiotic tolerance. The phylogenetic tree was independent of region, age and feeding mode, and without any regularity in the clustering of carbohydrates and antibiotics at the genetic level. Based on genotypic-phenotypic correlation analysis, the diversity of glycosyl hydrolases and the ability of strains to metabolize carbohydrates corroborated the predominance of B. breve in the children's intestines. Simultaneously, the sensitivity of strains to antibiotics increased the understanding of its genetic features and provided a potential basis for safety evaluation.
    • Conjugated linoleic acid production and probiotic assessment of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from Pico cheese

      Ribeiro, Susana C.; STANTON, CATHERINE; Yang, Bo; Ross, R Paul; Silva, Célia C.G.; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia; Science Foundation of Ireland; Fundo Regional para a Ciência e Tecnologia; PTDC/AGR-ALI/104385/2008; M3.1.2/F/011/2011 (Elsevier, 2017-12-29)
      Lactic acid bacteria isolated from a traditional Azorean cheese were screened for their ability to convert free linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were recognized as potential CLA producers. GC analysis identified cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 as the predominant isomer (10–14 μg/mL), followed by trans-9, trans-11 C18:2 (4–6 μg/mL). The CLA producing strains demonstrated strong biofilm capacity, high cell surface hydrophobicity and good auto-aggregation ability. These strains were capable of surviving in the presence of bile salts (0.3%) and pancreatin (0.1%), but only the highest CLA producer (L3C1E8) was able to resist low pH (2.5). Moreover, the CLA-producers showed good adhesion capacity to intestinal human cells (Caco-2 and HT-29) and were able to prevent colonization of Escherichia coli. Of the two strains, Lactobacillus plantarum L3C1E8 revealed superior probiotic properties and great potential for producing food products enriched in the two CLA isomers, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (60%) and trans-9, trans-11 C18:2 (25%).
    • Diversity of Gut Microbiota and Bifidobacterial Community of Chinese Subjects of Different Ages and from Different Regions

      Yang, Bo; Yan, Shuang; Chen, Yang; Ross, R. Paul; STANTON, CATHERINE; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; National Natural Science Foundation of China; National First-Class Discipline Program of Food Science and Technology; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-07-24)
      Gut microbiota composition and functionality are closely linked to host health. In this study, the fecal microbiota and bifidobacterial communities of 111 healthy volunteers from four regions of China of varying age profiles (Child, 1–5 years; Young, 18–50 years; Elder, 60–80 years; Longevity, ≥90 years) were investigated via high-throughput sequencing. Canonical analysis revealed that the gut microbiota, as well as bifidobacteria profiles of the subjects, clustered according to their regions and age. Eight genera were shared among all subjects, however, certain genera distributed differently in subjects grouped by region and age. Faecalibacterium was enriched in samples from Zhongxiang, unclassified Ruminococcaceae and Christensenellaceae were enriched in the Longevity group, and Bifidobacterium was enriched in Child. Within Bifidobacterium, B. longum was the most abundant species in almost all samples except for Child, in which B. pseudocatenulatum was the most abundant. Additionally, the abundances of B. adolescentis and B. dentium were lower in Child. In conclusion, our results suggest that geography and age affect the structure of the gut microbiota, as well as Bifidobacterium composition, and this variation may greatly associate with the metabolic and immune changes that occur during the process of aging.