• Fish By-Product Use as Biostimulants: An Overview of the Current State of the Art, Including Relevant Legislation and Regulations within the EU and USA

      Madende, Moses; Hayes, Maria; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; European Maritime Fisheries Fund; 17/SRDP/008 (MDPI AG, 2020-03-03)
      Crop production systems have adopted cost-effective, sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural practices to improve crop yields and the quality of food derived from plants. Approaches such as genetic selection and the creation of varieties displaying favorable traits such as disease and drought resistance have been used in the past and continue to be used. However, the use of biostimulants to promote plant growth has increasingly gained attention, and the market size for biostimulants is estimated to reach USD 4.14 billion by 2025. Plant biostimulants are products obtained from different inorganic or organic substances and microorganisms that can improve plant growth and productivity and abate the negative effects of abiotic stresses. They include materials such as protein hydrolysates, amino acids, humic substances, seaweed extracts and food or industrial waste-derived compounds. Fish processing waste products have potential applications as plant biostimulants. This review gives an overview of plant biostimulants with a focus on fish protein hydrolysates and legislation governing the use of plant biostimulants in agriculture.