• Gut microbes from the phylogenetically diverse genus Eubacterium and their various contributions to gut health

      Mukherjee, Arghya; Lordan, Cathy; Ross, R. Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship; Science Foundation Ireland; EU; 15/F/635; 2017047; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-23)
      Over the last two decades our understanding of the gut microbiota and its contribution to health and disease has been transformed. Among a new ‘generation’ of potentially beneficial microbes to have been recognized are members of the genus Eubacterium, who form a part of the core human gut microbiome. The genus consists of phylogenetically, and quite frequently phenotypically, diverse species, making Eubacterium a taxonomically unique and challenging genus. Several members of the genus produce butyrate, which plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, colonic motility, immunomodulation and suppression of inflammation in the gut. Eubacterium spp. also carry out bile acid and cholesterol transformations in the gut, thereby contributing to their homeostasis. Gut dysbiosis and a consequently modified representation of Eubacterium spp. in the gut, have been linked with various human disease states. This review provides an overview of Eubacterium species from a phylogenetic perspective, describes how they alter with diet and age and summarizes its association with the human gut and various health conditions.
    • Whey proteins: targets of oxidation, or mediators of redox protection.

      Giblin, Linda; Yalçın, A Süha; Biçim, Gökhan; Krämer, Anna C; Chen, Zhifei; Callanan, Michael J; Arranz, Elena; Davies, Michael J; European Cooperation in Science and Technology; Novo Nordisk Foundation; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2019-01-01)
      Bovine whey proteins are highly valued dairy ingredients. This is primarily due to their amino acid content, digestibility, bioactivities and their processing characteristics. One of the reported bioactivities of whey proteins is antioxidant activity. Numerous dietary intervention trials with humans and animals indicate that consumption of whey products can modulate redox biomarkers to reduce oxidative stress. This bioactivity has in part been assigned to whey peptides using a range of biochemical or cellular assays in vitro. Superimposing whey peptide sequences from gastrointestinal samples, with whey peptides proven to be antioxidant in vitro, allows us to propose peptides from whey likely to exhibit antioxidant activity in the diet. However, whey proteins themselves are targets of oxidation during processing particularly when exposed to high thermal loads and/or extensive processing (e.g. infant formula manufacture). Oxidative damage of whey proteins can be selective with regard to the residues that are modified and are associated with the degree of protein unfolding, with α-Lactalbumin more susceptible than β-Lactoglobulin. Such oxidative damage may have adverse effects on human health. This review summarises how whey proteins can modulate cellular redox pathways and conversely how whey proteins can be oxidised during processing. Given the extensive processing steps that whey proteins are often subjected to, we conclude that oxidation during processing is likely to compromise the positive health attributes associated with whey proteins.