Browsing Food Biosciences by Subject "Intestinal permeability"
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Manipulation of gut microbiota blunts the ventilatory response to hypercapnia in adult ratsBackground: It is increasingly evident that perturbations to the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota have significant consequences for the regulation of integrative physiological systems. There is growing interest in the potential contribution of microbiota-gut-brain signalling to cardiorespiratory control in health and disease. Methods: In adult male rats, we sought to determine the cardiorespiratory effects of manipulation of the gut microbiota following a 4-week administration of a cocktail of antibiotics. We subsequently explored the effects of administration of faecal microbiota from pooled control (vehicle) rat faeces, given by gavage to vehicle- and antibiotic-treated rats. Findings: Antibiotic intervention depressed the ventilatory response to hypercapnic stress in conscious animals, owing to a reduction in the respiratory frequency response to carbon dioxide. Baseline frequency, respiratory timing variability, and the expression of apnoeas and sighs were normal. Microbiota-depleted rats had decreased systolic blood pressure. Faecal microbiota transfer to vehicle- and antibiotic-treated animals also disrupted the gut microbiota composition, associated with depressed ventilatory responsiveness to hypercapnia. Chronic antibiotic intervention or faecal microbiota transfer both caused significant disruptions to brainstem monoamine neurochemistry, with increased homovanillic acid:dopamine ratio indicative of increased dopamine turnover, which correlated with the abundance of several bacteria of six different phyla. Interpretation: Chronic antibiotic administration and faecal microbiota transfer disrupt gut microbiota, brainstem monoamine concentrations and the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. We suggest that aberrant microbiota-gut-brain axis signalling has a modulatory influence on respiratory behaviour during hypercapnic stress.
Microbiota-related Changes in Bile Acid & Tryptophan Metabolism are Associated with Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of AutismAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental conditions worldwide. There is growing awareness that ASD is highly comorbid with gastrointestinal distress and altered intestinal microbiome, and that host-microbiome interactions may contribute to the disease symptoms. However, the paucity of knowledge on gut-brain axis signaling in autism constitutes an obstacle to the development of precision microbiota-based therapeutics in ASD. To this end, we explored the interactions between intestinal microbiota, gut physiology and social behavior in a BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J mouse model of ASD. Here we show that a reduction in the relative abundance of very particular bacterial taxa in the BTBR gut – namely, bile-metabolizing Bifidobacterium and Blautia species, - is associated with deficient bile acid and tryptophan metabolism in the intestine, marked gastrointestinal dysfunction, as well as impaired social interactions in BTBR mice. Together these data support the concept of targeted manipulation of the gut microbiota for reversing gastrointestinal and behavioral symptomatology in ASD, and offer specific plausible targets in this endeavor.