• Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 and Goat Milk Oligosaccharides Show Synergism In Vitro as Anti-Infectives against Campylobacter jejuni

      Quinn, Erinn M.; Slattery, Helen; Walsh, Dan; Joshi, Lokesh; Hickey, Rita M.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (MDPI AG, 2020-03-17)
      Bifidobacteria are known to inhibit, compete with and displace the adhesion of pathogens to human intestinal cells. Previously, we demonstrated that goat milk oligosaccharides (GMO) increased the attachment of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 to intestinal cells in vitro. In this study, we aimed to exploit this effect as a mechanism for inhibiting pathogen association with intestinal cells. We examined the synergistic effect of GMO-treated B. infantis on preventing the attachment of a highly invasive strain of Campylobacter jejuni to intestinal HT-29 cells. The combination decreased the adherence of C. jejuni to the HT-29 cells by an average of 42% compared to the control (non-GMO treated B. infantis). Increasing the incubation time of the GMO with the Bifidobacterium strain resulted in the strain metabolizing the GMO, correlating with a subsequent 104% increase in growth over a 24 h period when compared to the control. Metabolite analysis in the 24 h period also revealed increased production of acetate, lactate, formate and ethanol by GMO-treated B. infantis. Statistically significant changes in the GMO profile were also demonstrated over the 24 h period, indicating that the strain was digesting certain structures within the pool such as lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, lacto-N-neohexaose 3′-sialyllactose, 6′-sialyllactose, sialyllacto-N-neotetraose c and disialyllactose. It may be that early exposure to GMO modulates the adhesion of B. infantis while carbohydrate utilisation becomes more important after the bacteria have transiently colonised the host cells in adequate numbers. This study builds a strong case for the use of synbiotics that incorporate oligosaccharides sourced from goat′s milk and probiotic bifidobacteria in functional foods, particularly considering the growing popularity of formulas based on goat milk.
    • Mining Milk for Factors which Increase the Adherence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis to Intestinal Cells

      Quinn, Erinn M.; Slattery, Helen; Thompson, Aoife P.; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Joshi, Lokesh; Hickey, Rita M.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (MDPI, 2018-12-03)
      Bifidobacteria play a vital role in human nutrition and health by shaping and maintaining the gut ecosystem. In order to exert a beneficial effect, a sufficient population of bifidobacteria must colonise the host. In this study, we developed a miniaturised high-throughput in vitro assay for assessing the colonising ability of bacterial strains in human cells. We also investigated a variety of components isolated from different milk sources for their ability to increase the adherence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697, a common member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of breastfed infants, to HT-29 cells. Both conventional and miniaturised colonisation assays were employed to examine the effect of 13 different milk-derived powders on bacterial adherence, including positive controls which had previously resulted in increased bifidobacterial adherence (human milk oligosaccharides and a combination of 3′- and 6′-sialylactose) to intestinal cells. Immunoglobulin G enriched from bovine whey and goat milk oligosaccharides resulted in increased adhesion (3.3- and 8.3-fold, respectively) of B. infantis to the intestinal cells and the miniaturised and conventional assays were found to yield comparable and reproducible results. This study highlights the potential of certain milk components to favourably modulate adhesion of bifidobacteria to human intestinal cells.
    • A Whey Fraction Rich in Immunoglobulin G Combined with Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 Exhibits Synergistic Effects against Campylobacter jejuni

      Quinn, Erinn M.; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Walsh, Dan; Joshi, Lokesh; Hickey, Rita M.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (MDPI AG, 2020-06-29)
      Evidence that whey proteins and peptides have health benefits beyond basic infant nutrition has increased dramatically in recent years. Previously, we demonstrated that a whey-derived immunoglobulin G-enriched powder (IGEP) enhanced adhesion of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 (B. infantis) to HT-29 cells. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of IGEP-treated B. infantis on preventing the attachment of highly invasive Campylobacter jejuni 81–176 (C. jejuni) to intestinal HT-29 cells. The combination decreased the adherence of C. jejuni to the HT-29 cells by an average of 48% compared to the control (non-IGEP-treated B. infantis). We also confirmed that treatment of IGEP with sodium metaperiodate, which disables the biological recognition of the conjugated oligosaccharides, reduced adhesion of B. infantis to the intestinal cells. Thus, glycosylation of the IGEP components may be important in enhancing B. infantis adhesion. Interestingly, an increased adhesion phenotype was not observed when B. infantis was treated with bovine serum-derived IgG, suggesting that bioactivity was unique to milk-derived immunoglobulin-rich powders. Notably, IGEP did not induce growth of B. infantis within a 24 hours incubation period, as demonstrated by growth curves and metabolite analysis. The current study provides insight into the functionality of bovine whey components and highlights their potential in positively impacting the development of a healthy microbiota.