• Breast Milk, a Source of Beneficial Microbes and Associated Benefits for Infant Health

      Lyons, Katríona E.; Ryan, C. Anthony; Dempsey, Eugene M.; Ross, R Paul; STANTON, CATHERINE; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; 15F721 (MDPI AG, 2020-04-09)
      Human breast milk is considered the optimum feeding regime for newborn infants due to its ability to provide complete nutrition and many bioactive health factors. Breast feeding is associated with improved infant health and immune development, less incidences of gastrointestinal disease and lower mortality rates than formula fed infants. As well as providing fundamental nutrients to the growing infant, breast milk is a source of commensal bacteria which further enhance infant health by preventing pathogen adhesion and promoting gut colonisation of beneficial microbes. While breast milk was initially considered a sterile fluid and microbes isolated were considered contaminants, it is now widely accepted that breast milk is home to its own unique microbiome. The origins of bacteria in breast milk have been subject to much debate, however, the possibility of an entero-mammary pathway allowing for transfer of microbes from maternal gut to the mammary gland is one potential pathway. Human milk derived strains can be regarded as potential probiotics; therefore, many studies have focused on isolating strains from milk for subsequent use in infant health and nutrition markets. This review aims to discuss mammary gland development in preparation for lactation as well as explore the microbial composition and origins of the human milk microbiota with a focus on probiotic development.
    • Exploitation of SPR to Investigate the Importance of Glycan Chains in the Interaction between Lactoferrin and Bacteria

      O'Riordan, Noelle; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Joshi, Lokesh; Hickey, Rita M.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (MDPI, 2017-06-27)
      Bovine lactoferrin (LF) has been shown to prevent adhesion to and invasion of mammalian cell lines by pathogenic bacteria, with evidence for direct bacterial binding by the milk glycoprotein. However, the glycosylation pattern of LF changes over the lactation cycle. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect that this variation has on the milk glycoprotein’s ability to interact with pathogens. Surface plasmon resonance technology was employed to compare the binding of LF from colostrum (early lactation) and mature milk (late lactation) to a panel of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Cronobacter sakazakii, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium). Novel interactions with LF were identified for C. sakazakii, S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa with the highest binding ability observed for mature milk LF in all cases, with the exception of S. typhimurium. The difference in bacterial binding observed may be as a result of the varying glycosylation profiles. This work demonstrates the potential of LF as a functional food ingredient to prevent bacterial infection