• Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production

      Bleakley, Stephen; Hayes, Maria; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (MDPI, 26/04/2017)
      Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examined
    • Aquaculture Production of the Brown Seaweeds Laminaria digitata and Macrocystis pyrifera: Applications in Food and Pharmaceuticals

      Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Packer, Michael A.; Wheeler, Thomas T.; Hayes, Maria; Teagasc; European Union; 754380 (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-02-28)
      Seaweeds have a long history of use as food, as flavouring agents, and find use in traditional folk medicine. Seaweed products range from food, feed, and dietary supplements to pharmaceuticals, and from bioenergy intermediates to materials. At present, 98% of the seaweed required by the seaweed industry is provided by five genera and only ten species. The two brown kelp seaweeds Laminaria digitata, a native Irish species, and Macrocystis pyrifera, a native New Zealand species, are not included in these eleven species, although they have been used as dietary supplements and as animal and fish feed. The properties associated with the polysaccharides and proteins from these two species have resulted in increased interest in them, enabling their use as functional foods. Improvements and optimisations in aquaculture methods and bioproduct extractions are essential to realise the commercial potential of these seaweeds. Recent advances in optimising these processes are outlined in this review, as well as potential future applications of L. digitata and, to a greater extent, M. pyrifera which, to date, has been predominately only wild-harvested. These include bio-refinery processing to produce ingredients for nutricosmetics, functional foods, cosmeceuticals, and bioplastics. Areas that currently limit the commercial potential of these two species are highlighted
    • Prebiotics from Seaweeds: An Ocean of Opportunity?

      Cherry, Paul; Yadav, Supriya; Strain, Conall R.; Allsopp, Philip J.; McSorley, Emeir; Ross, R Paul; STANTON, CATHERINE; Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; 13F511 (PREMARA) (MDPI, 2019-06-01)
      Abstract Seaweeds are an underexploited and potentially sustainable crop which offer a rich source of bioactive compounds, including novel complex polysaccharides, polyphenols, fatty acids, and carotenoids. The purported efficacies of these phytochemicals have led to potential functional food and nutraceutical applications which aim to protect against cardiometabolic and inflammatory risk factors associated with non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and some cancers. Concurrent understanding that perturbations of gut microbial composition and metabolic function manifest throughout health and disease has led to dietary strategies, such as prebiotics, which exploit the diet-host-microbe paradigm to modulate the gut microbiota, such that host health is maintained or improved. The prebiotic definition was recently updated to “a substrate that is selectively utilised by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit”, which, given that previous discussion regarding seaweed prebiotics has focused upon saccharolytic fermentation, an opportunity is presented to explore how non-complex polysaccharide components from seaweeds may be metabolised by host microbial populations to benefit host health. Thus, this review provides an innovative approach to consider how the gut microbiota may utilise seaweed phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and carotenoids, and provides an updated discussion regarding the catabolism of seaweed-derived complex polysaccharides with potential prebiotic activity. Additional in vitro screening studies and in vivo animal studies are needed to identify potential prebiotics from seaweeds, alongside untargeted metabolomics to decipher microbial-derived metabolites from seaweeds. Furthermore, controlled human intervention studies with health-related end points to elucidate prebiotic efficacy are required.
    • Seaweed Components as Potential Modulators of the Gut Microbiota

      Shannon, Emer; Conlon, Michael; Hayes, Maria; Marie Skłodowska-Curie; 754380. (MDPI AG, 2021-06-23)
      Macroalgae, or seaweeds, are a rich source of components which may exert beneficial effects on the mammalian gut microbiota through the enhancement of bacterial diversity and abundance. An imbalance of gut bacteria has been linked to the development of disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, immunodeficiency, hypertension, type-2-diabetes, obesity, and cancer. This review outlines current knowledge from in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the potential therapeutic application of seaweed-derived polysaccharides, polyphenols and peptides to modulate the gut microbiota through diet. Polysaccharides such as fucoidan, laminarin, alginate, ulvan and porphyran are unique to seaweeds. Several studies have shown their potential to act as prebiotics and to positively modulate the gut microbiota. Prebiotics enhance bacterial populations and often their production of short chain fatty acids, which are the energy source for gastrointestinal epithelial cells, provide protection against pathogens, influence immunomodulation, and induce apoptosis of colon cancer cells. The oral bioaccessibility and bioavailability of seaweed components is also discussed, including the advantages and limitations of static and dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal models versus ex vivo and in vivo methods. Seaweed bioactives show potential for use in prevention and, in some instances, treatment of human disease. However, it is also necessary to confirm these potential, therapeutic effects in large-scale clinical trials. Where possible, we have cited information concerning these trials
    • Seaweed Components as Potential Modulators of the Gut Microbiota

      Shannon, Emer; Conlon, Michael; Hayes, Maria; Teagasc; European Union; 754380 (MDPI AG, 2021-06-23)
      Macroalgae, or seaweeds, are a rich source of components which may exert beneficial effects on the mammalian gut microbiota through the enhancement of bacterial diversity and abundance. An imbalance of gut bacteria has been linked to the development of disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, immunodeficiency, hypertension, type-2-diabetes, obesity, and cancer. This review outlines current knowledge from in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the potential therapeutic application of seaweed-derived polysaccharides, polyphenols and peptides to modulate the gut microbiota through diet. Polysaccharides such as fucoidan, laminarin, alginate, ulvan and porphyran are unique to seaweeds. Several studies have shown their potential to act as prebiotics and to positively modulate the gut microbiota. Prebiotics enhance bacterial populations and often their production of short chain fatty acids, which are the energy source for gastrointestinal epithelial cells, provide protection against pathogens, influence immunomodulation, and induce apoptosis of colon cancer cells. The oral bioaccessibility and bioavailability of seaweed components is also discussed, including the advantages and limitations of static and dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal models versus ex vivo and in vivo methods. Seaweed bioactives show potential for use in prevention and, in some instances, treatment of human disease. However, it is also necessary to confirm these potential, therapeutic effects in large-scale clinical trials. Where possible, we have cited information concerning these trials.