• The effect of ovine milk fermentation on the antithrombotic properties of polar lipids

      Lordan, Ronan; Walsh, Aaron M.; Crispie, Fiona; Finnegan, Laura; Cotter, Paul D.; Zabetakis, Ioannis; Enterprise Ireland; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Ireland; IP-2016-0488Y (Elsevier, 2019-01-24)
      The effect of fermentation on the antithrombotic properties of polar lipids in ovine milk has been assessed through the production of yoghurts. The total lipids (TL), total neutral lipids (TNL), and total polar lipids (TPL) were extracted. The fatty acid profiles of all yoghurt polar lipids were analysed by GC-MS. The levels of MUFA increased in the fatty acids of the polar lipids, but there was a reduction in PUFA as milk was fermented to yoghurt. The bioactivity of each lipid extract was assessed against platelet-activating factor (PAF) induced platelet aggregation. All yoghurt polar lipids exhibited potent antithrombotic activities with IC50 values ranging from 45 to 77 µg. Shotgun metagenomics determined the species-level microbial composition and functional potential of the yoghurts. Yoghurts containing L. acidophilus seem to correlate with greater bioactivity. Several phospholipid biosynthetic genes have been identified in the most antithrombotic yoghurts. This study has demonstrated that fermentation enhances the antithrombotic properties of yoghurt polar lipids against PAF.
    • Efficacy of nisin A and nisin V semi-purified preparations alone and in combination with plant essential oils to control Listeria monocytogenes

      Field, Des; Daly, Karen M.; O'Connor, Paula M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Science Foundation Ireland; 10/IN.1/B3027; 06/IN.1/B98 (American Society for Microbiology, 06/02/2015)
      The foodborne pathogenic bacterium Listeria is known for relatively low morbidity and high mortality rates reaching up to 25-30%. Listeria is a hardy organism and its control in foods represents a significant challenge. Many naturally occurring compounds, including the bacteriocin nisin and a number of plant essential oils, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of semi-purified preparations (spp) containing either nisin A or an enhanced bioengineered derivative nisin V, alone and in combination with low concentrations of the essential oils thymol, carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde, to control L. monocytogenes in both laboratory media and model food systems. Combinations of nisin V-containing spp (25 μg/ml) with thymol (0.02%), carvacrol (0.02%) or cinnamaldehyde (0.02%) produced a significantly longer lag phase than any of the essential oil/nisin A combinations. In addition, the log reduction in cell counts achieved by the nisin V + carvacrol or nisin V + cinnamaldehyde combinations was twice that of the equivalent nisin A + essential oil treatment. Significantly, this enhanced activity was validated in model food systems against L. monocytogenes strains of food origin. We conclude that the fermentate form of nisin V in combination with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde offers significant advantages as a novel, natural and effective means to enhance food safety by inhibiting foodborne pathogens such as L. monocytogenes.
    • The efficacy of thuricin CD, tigecycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, rifampicin and nitazoxanide, independently and in paired combinations against Clostridium difficile biofilms and planktonic cells

      Mathur, Harsh; Rea, Mary; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Science Foundation Ireland; SFI/12/RC/2273 (Biomed Central, 02/06/2016)
      Background Thuricin CD is a two-component antimicrobial, belonging to the recently designated sactibiotic subclass of bacteriocins. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thuricin CD, as well as the antibiotics, tigecycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, rifampicin and nitazoxanide when used independently and when combined at low concentrations on the viability of Clostridium difficile 20291 R027, TL178 R002, Liv022 R106, DPC6350 and VPI10463 biofilms and planktonic cells. Results On the basis of XTT (2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide)-menadione biofilm viability assays, we found that thuricin CD was effective against biofilms of R027, Liv022 R106 and DPC6350 when used independently while nitazoxanide and rifampicin were also potent against biofilms of R027 and DPC6350, when applied on their own. Tigecycline was found to be effective against R027 and DPC6350 biofilms, whereas teicoplanin and vancomycin when used independently were only effective against DPC6350 biofilms. The efficacies of the antibiotics rifampicin, tigecycline, vancomycin and teicoplanin against C. difficile 20291 R027 biofilms were significantly potentiated when combined with thuricin CD, indicating effective antimicrobial combinations with this sactibiotic against R027 biofilms. However, the potency of nitazoxanide against R027 biofilms was significantly diminished when combined with thuricin CD, indicating an ineffective combination with this sactibiotic against R027 biofilms. Paired combinations of thuricin CD along with these five antibiotics were effective at diminishing the viability of DPC6350 biofilms. However, such combinations were largely ineffective against biofilms of TL178 R002, Liv022 R106 and VPI10463. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight the activity of a sactibiotic bacteriocin against biofilms and the first to reveal the potency of the antibiotics tigecycline, teicoplanin and nitazoxanide against C. difficile biofilms. On the basis of this study, it is apparent that different strains of C. difficile possess varying abilities to form biofilms and that the sensitivities of these biofilms to different antimicrobials and antimicrobial combinations are strain-dependent. Since the formation of relatively strong biofilms by certain C. difficile strains may contribute to increased cases of antibiotic resistance and recurrence and relapse of C. difficile infection, the findings presented in this study could provide alternative strategies to target this pathogen.
    • Evaluation of methods for the reduction of contaminating host reads when performing shotgun metagenomic sequencing of the milk microbiome

      Yap, Min; Feehily, Conor; Walsh, Calum J.; Fenelon, Mark; Murphy, Eileen F.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; van Sinderen, Douwe; O’Toole, Paul W.; O’Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; et al. (Springer, 2020-12-10)
      Shotgun metagenomic sequencing is a valuable tool for the taxonomic and functional profiling of microbial communities. However, this approach is challenging in samples, such as milk, where a low microbial abundance, combined with high levels of host DNA, result in inefficient and uneconomical sequencing. Here we evaluate approaches to deplete host DNA or enrich microbial DNA prior to sequencing using three commercially available kits. We compared the percentage of microbial reads obtained from each kit after shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Using bovine and human milk samples, we determined that host depletion with the MolYsis complete5 kit significantly improved microbial sequencing depth compared to other approaches tested. Importantly, no biases were introduced. Additionally, the increased microbial sequencing depth allowed for further characterization of the microbiome through the generation of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Furthermore, with the use of a mock community, we compared three common classifiers and determined that Kraken2 was the optimal classifier for these samples. This evaluation shows that microbiome analysis can be performed on both bovine and human milk samples at a much greater resolution without the need for more expensive deep-sequencing approaches.
    • Exercise and the microbiota

      O'Sullivan, Orla; Cronin, Owen; Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; Molloy, Micheal G; Shanahan, Fergus; Cotter, Paul D.; Science Foundation Ireland; SFI/12/RC/2273; SFI/12/RC/2273; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 24/03/2015)
      Sedentary lifestyle is linked with poor health, most commonly obesity and associated disorders, the corollary being that exercise offers a preventive strategy. However, the scope of exercise biology extends well beyond energy expenditure and has emerged as a great ‘polypill’, which is safe, reliable and cost-effective not only in disease prevention but also treatment. Biological mechanisms by which exercise influences homeostasis are becoming clearer and involve multi-organ systemic adaptations. Most of the elements of a modern lifestyle influence the indigenous microbiota but few studies have explored the effect of increased physical activity. While dietary responses to exercise obscure the influence of exercise alone on gut microbiota, professional athletes operating at the extremes of performance provide informative data. We assessed the relationship between extreme levels of exercise, associated dietary habits and gut microbiota composition, and discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise may exert a direct or indirect influence on gut microbiota.
    • Expression, purification and antimicrobial activity of recombinant pediocin PA-1 M31L, a PA-1 derivative with enhanced stability

      Kuniyoshi, Taís Mayumi; O’ Connor, Paula M.; Arbulu, Sara; Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo; Hill, Collin; Ross, Paul; Cotter, Paul D. (Microbiology Society, 2019-03-01)
      Pediocin, the prototypical class IIa bacteriocin, is an efficient antilisterial molecule. Loss of pediocin PA-1 activity is attributed to methionine oxidation at position 31 and this can be overcome by substituting methionine for leucine (pediocin M31L). The aim of this study was to produce pediocin M31L with enhanced stability by recombinant expression in E. coli cells.
    • Fermented beverages with health-promoting potential: Past and future perspectives

      Marsh, Alan J.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D. (Elsevier, 20/05/2014)
      Highlights • Traditional fermented beverages are reviewed. • Microbiology and probiotic potential of beverages are considered. • Recent developments in novel probiotic beverage production. • Beverages produced from a number of different substrates are explored. • Review of enchancements (prebiotics, flavours and neutraceuticals). Fermentation is an ancient form of food preservation, which also improves the nutritional content of foods. In many regions of the world, fermented beverages have become known for their health-promoting attributes. In addition to harnessing traditional beverages for commercial use, there have recently been innovative efforts to develop non-dairy probiotic fermented beverages from a variety of substrates, including soy milk, whey, cereals and vegetable and fruit juices. On the basis of recent developments, it is anticipated that fermented beverages will continue to be a significant component within the functional food market.
    • Fermented beverages with health-promoting potential: Past and future perspectives

      Marsh, Alan J.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D. (Elsevier, 16/07/2014)
      Fermentation is an ancient form of food preservation, which also improves the nutritional content of foods. In many regions of the world, fermented beverages have become known for their health-promoting attributes. In addition to harnessing traditional beverages for commercial use, there have recently been innovative efforts to develop non-dairy probiotic fermented beverages from a variety of substrates, including soy milk, whey, cereals and vegetable and fruit juices. On the basis of recent developments, it is anticipated that fermented beverages will continue to be a significant component within the functional food market.
    • First evidence of production of the lantibiotic nisin P

      Garcia-Gutierrez, Enriqueta; O’Connor, Paula M.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Walsh, Calum J.; Hegarty, James W.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Mayer, Melinda J.; Narbad, Arjan; Cotter, Paul D.; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-02-28)
      Nisin P is a natural nisin variant, the genetic determinants for which were previously identified in the genomes of two Streptococcus species, albeit with no confirmed evidence of production. Here we describe Streptococcus agalactiae DPC7040, a human faecal isolate, which exhibits antimicrobial activity against a panel of gut and food isolates by virtue of producing nisin P. Nisin P was purified, and its predicted structure was confirmed by nanoLC-MS/MS, with both the fully modified peptide and a variant without rings B and E being identified. Additionally, we compared its spectrum of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with that of nisin A and its antimicrobial effect in a faecal fermentation in comparison with nisin A and H. We found that its antimicrobial activity was less potent than nisin A and H, and we propose a link between this reduced activity and the peptide structure.
    • The Fungal Frontier: A Comparative Analysis of Methods Used in the Study of the Human Gut Mycobiome

      Huseyin, Chloe E.; Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Scanlan, Pauline D. (Frontiers, 31/07/2017)
      The human gut is host to a diverse range of fungal species, collectively referred to as the gut “mycobiome”. The gut mycobiome is emerging as an area of considerable research interest due to the potential roles of these fungi in human health and disease. However, there is no consensus as to what the best or most suitable methodologies available are with respect to characterizing the human gut mycobiome. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of several previously published mycobiome-specific culture-dependent and -independent methodologies, including choice of culture media, incubation conditions (aerobic versus anaerobic), DNA extraction method, primer set and freezing of fecal samples to assess their relative merits and suitability for gut mycobiome analysis. There was no significant effect of media type or aeration on culture-dependent results. However, freezing was found to have a significant effect on fungal viability, with significantly lower fungal numbers recovered from frozen samples. DNA extraction method had a significant effect on DNA yield and quality. However, freezing and extraction method did not have any impact on either α or β diversity. There was also considerable variation in the ability of different fungal-specific primer sets to generate PCR products for subsequent sequence analysis. Through this investigation two DNA extraction methods and one primer set was identified which facilitated the analysis of the mycobiome for all samples in this study. Ultimately, a diverse range of fungal species were recovered using both approaches, with Candida and Saccharomyces identified as the most common fungal species recovered using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. As has been apparent from ecological surveys of the bacterial fraction of the gut microbiota, the use of different methodologies can also impact on our understanding of gut mycobiome composition and therefore requires careful consideration. Future research into the gut mycobiome needs to adopt a common strategy to minimize potentially confounding effects of methodological choice and to facilitate comparative analysis of datasets.
    • Genome Sequence of Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 458, an Antimicrobial-Producing Thermophyllic Bacterium, Isolated from a Sugar Beet Factory

      Egan, Kevin; Kelleher, Philip; Field, Des; Rea, Mary; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; DAFM 13/F/462; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2017-10-26)
      This paper reports the full genome sequence of the antimicrobial-producing bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 458, isolated in a sugar beet factory in Austria. In silico analysis reveals the presence of a number of novel bacteriocin biosynthetic genes.
    • Genome Sequence of Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 458, an Antimicrobial-Producing Thermophilic Bacterium, Isolated from a Sugar Beet Factory

      Egan, Kevin; Kelleher, Philip; Field, Des; Rea, Mary; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; DAFM 13/F/462; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2017-10-26)
      This paper reports the full genome sequence of the antimicrobial-producing bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 458, isolated in a sugar beet factory in Austria. In silico analysis reveals the presence of a number of novel bacteriocin biosynthetic genes.
    • Genome Sequence of Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 458, an Antimicrobial-Producing Thermophilic Bacterium, Isolated from a Sugar Beet Factory

      Egan, Kevin; Kelleher, Philip; Field, Des; Rea, Mary; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; 13/F/462; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2017-10-26)
      This paper reports the full genome sequence of the antimicrobial-producing bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 458, isolated in a sugar beet factory in Austria. In silico analysis reveals the presence of a number of novel bacteriocin biosynthetic genes.
    • Genomic Characterization of Sulphite Reducing Bacteria Isolated From the Dairy Production Chain

      Doyle, Conor J.; O'Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul D.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2013030 (Frontiers, 2018-07-05)
      Anaerobic sporeformers, specifically spoilage and pathogenic members of the genus Clostridium, are a concern for producers of dairy products, and of powdered dairy products in particular. As an alternative to testing for individual species, the traditional, and still current, approach to detecting these sporeformers, including non-spoilage/non-pathogenic species, in dairy products has involved testing for a sulphite reducing phenotype [Sulphite reducing Clostridia (SRCs)] under anaerobic conditions. This phenotype is conserved throughout the Order Clostridia. Unfortunately, however, this phenotype is exhibited by other sulphite reducing bacteria (SRBs) also, potentially leading to potential for false positives. Here, this risk was borne out through the identification of several SRBs from industry samples that were identified as Proteus mirabilis and various Bacillus/Paenibacillus sp. Genome wide comparison of a number of representative SRCs and SRBs was employed to determine phylogenetic relationships, especially among SRCs, and to characterize the genes responsible for the sulphite reducing phenotype. This screen identified two associated operons, i.e., asrABC in SRCs, and cysJI in Bacillus/Paenibacillus spp. and P. mirabilis. This screen identified spp. belonging to sensu stricto, Lachnospiraceae and Cluster XIV of the Clostridia all producing the SRC phenotype. This study highlights the inaccuracy of the industry standard SRC test but highlights the potential to generate an equivalent molecular test designed to detect the genes responsible for this phenotype in clostridia.
    • Gut microbes from the phylogenetically diverse genus Eubacterium and their various contributions to gut health

      Mukherjee, Arghya; Lordan, Cathy; Ross, R. Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship; Science Foundation Ireland; EU; 15/F/635; 2017047; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-23)
      Over the last two decades our understanding of the gut microbiota and its contribution to health and disease has been transformed. Among a new ‘generation’ of potentially beneficial microbes to have been recognized are members of the genus Eubacterium, who form a part of the core human gut microbiome. The genus consists of phylogenetically, and quite frequently phenotypically, diverse species, making Eubacterium a taxonomically unique and challenging genus. Several members of the genus produce butyrate, which plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, colonic motility, immunomodulation and suppression of inflammation in the gut. Eubacterium spp. also carry out bile acid and cholesterol transformations in the gut, thereby contributing to their homeostasis. Gut dysbiosis and a consequently modified representation of Eubacterium spp. in the gut, have been linked with various human disease states. This review provides an overview of Eubacterium species from a phylogenetic perspective, describes how they alter with diet and age and summarizes its association with the human gut and various health conditions.
    • Gut microbiota as a source of novel antimicrobials

      Garcia-Gutierrez, Enriqueta; Mayer, Melinda J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Narbad, Arjan; Teagasc; Science Foundation Ireland; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; 2015066; SFI/12/RC/2273; SFI/11/PI/1137; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2019-05-22)
      Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya and viruses coexist in the human gut, and this coexistence is functionally balanced by symbiotic or antagonistic relationships. Antagonism is often characterized by the production of antimicrobials against other organisms occupying the same environmental niche. Indeed, close co-evolution in the gut has led to the development of specialized antimicrobials, which is attracting increased attention as these may serve as novel alternatives to antibiotics and thereby help to address the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is especially suitable for finding novel antimicrobials due to the vast array of microbes that inhabit it, and a considerable number of antimicrobial producers of both wide and narrow spectrum have been described. In this review, we summarize some of the antimicrobial compounds that are produced by bacteria isolated from the gut environment, with a special focus on bacteriocins. We also evaluate the potential therapeutic application of these compounds to maintain homeostasis in the gut and the biocontrol of pathogenic bacteria.
    • Health Benefits of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) Fermentates

      Mathur, Harsh; Beresford, Tom P.; Cotter, Paul D.; Food for Health Ireland; TC/2018/0025 (MDPI AG, 2020-06-04)
      Consuming fermented foods has been reported to result in improvements in a range of health parameters. These positive effects can be exerted by a combination of the live microorganisms that the fermented foods contain, as well as the bioactive components released into the foods as by-products of the fermentation process. In many instances, and particularly in dairy fermented foods, the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process belong to the lactic acid group of bacteria (LAB). An alternative approach to making some of the health benefits that have been attributed to fermented foods available is through the production of ‘fermentates’. The term ‘fermentate’ generally relates to a powdered preparation, derived from a fermented product and which can contain the fermenting microorganisms, components of these microorganisms, culture supernatants, fermented substrates, and a range of metabolites and bioactive components with potential health benefits. Here, we provide a brief overview of a selection of in vitro and in vivo studies and patents exclusively reporting the health benefits of LAB ‘fermentates’. Typically, in such studies, the potential health benefits have been attributed to the bioactive metabolites present in the crude fermentates and/or culture supernatants rather than the direct effects of the LAB strain(s) involved.
    • High-throughput DNA sequencing to survey bacterial histidine and tyrosine decarboxylases in raw milk cheeses

      O'Sullivan, Daniel; Fallico, Vincenzo; O'Sullivan, Orla; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Cotter, Paul D.; Giblin, Linda; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2012205 (Biomed Central, 17/11/2015)
      Background The aim of this study was to employ high-throughput DNA sequencing to assess the incidence of bacteria with biogenic amine (BA; histamine and tyramine) producing potential from among 10 different cheeses varieties. To facilitate this, a diagnostic approach using degenerate PCR primer pairs that were previously designed to amplify segments of the histidine (hdc) and tyrosine (tdc) decarboxylase gene clusters were employed. In contrast to previous studies in which the decarboxylase genes of specific isolates were studied, in this instance amplifications were performed using total metagenomic DNA extracts. Results Amplicons were initially cloned to facilitate Sanger sequencing of individual gene fragments to ensure that a variety of hdc and tdc genes were present. Once this was established, high throughput DNA sequencing of these amplicons was performed to provide a more in-depth analysis of the histamine- and tyramine-producing bacteria present in the cheeses. High-throughput sequencing resulted in generation of a total of 1,563,764 sequencing reads and revealed that Lactobacillus curvatus, Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis were the dominant species with tyramine producing potential, while Lb. buchneri was found to be the dominant species harbouring histaminogenic potential. Commonly used cheese starter bacteria, including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. delbreueckii, were also identified as having biogenic amine producing potential in the cheese studied. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities was then further complemented with HPLC quantification of histamine and tyramine in the sampled cheeses. Conclusions In this study, high-throughput DNA sequencing successfully identified populations capable of amine production in a variety of cheeses. This approach also gave an insight into the broader hdc and tdc complement within the various cheeses. This approach can be used to detect amine producing communities not only in food matrices but also in the production environment itself.
    • High-throughput DNA sequencing to survey bacterial histidine and tyrosine decarboxylases in raw milk cheeses

      O'Sullivan, Daniel; Fallico, Vincenzo; O'Sullivan, Orla; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Cotter, Paul D.; Giblin, Linda; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 2012205 (Biomed Central, 17/11/2015)
      Background: The aim of this study was to employ high-throughput DNA sequencing to assess the incidence of bacteria with biogenic amine (BA; histamine and tyramine) producing potential from among 10 different cheeses varieties. To facilitate this, a diagnostic approach using degenerate PCR primer pairs that were previously designed to amplify segments of the histidine (hdc) and tyrosine (tdc) decarboxylase gene clusters were employed. In contrast to previous studies in which the decarboxylase genes of specific isolates were studied, in this instance amplifications were performed using total metagenomic DNA extracts. Results: Amplicons were initially cloned to facilitate Sanger sequencing of individual gene fragments to ensure that a variety of hdc and tdc genes were present. Once this was established, high throughput DNA sequencing of these amplicons was performed to provide a more in-depth analysis of the histamine- and tyramine-producing bacteria present in the cheeses. High-throughput sequencing resulted in generation of a total of 1,563,764 sequencing reads and revealed that Lactobacillus curvatus, Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis were the dominant species with tyramine producing potential, while Lb. buchneri was found to be the dominant species harbouring histaminogenic potential. Commonly used cheese starter bacteria, including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. delbreueckii, were also identified as having biogenic amine producing potential in the cheese studied. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities was then further complemented with HPLC quantification of histamine and tyramine in the sampled cheeses. Conclusions: In this study, high-throughput DNA sequencing successfully identified populations capable of amine production in a variety of cheeses. This approach also gave an insight into the broader hdc and tdc complement within the various cheeses. This approach can be used to detect amine producing communities not only in food matrices but also in the production environment itself.
    • High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals the Incomplete, Short-Term Recovery of Infant Gut Microbiota following Parenteral Antibiotic Treatment with Ampicillin and Gentamicin

      Fouhy, Fiona; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Hussey, Seamus; Wall, Rebecca; Ryan, C. Anthony; Dempsey, Eugene; Murphy, Brendan; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; STANTON, CATHERINE; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 04/09/2012)
      The infant gut microbiota undergoes dramatic changes during the first 2 years of life. The acquisition and development of this population can be influenced by numerous factors, and antibiotic treatment has been suggested as one of the most significant. Despite this, however, there have been relatively few studies which have investigated the short-term recovery of the infant gut microbiota following antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing (employing both 16S rRNA and rpoB-specific primers) and quantitative PCR to compare the gut microbiota of nine infants who underwent parenteral antibiotic treatment with ampicillin and gentamicin (within 48 h of birth), 4 and 8 weeks after the conclusion of treatment, relative to that of nine matched healthy controls. The investigation revealed that the gut microbiota of the antibiotic-treated infants had significantly higher proportions of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0049) and significantly lower proportions of Actinobacteria (P = 0.00001) (and the associated genus Bifidobacterium [P = 0.0132]) as well as the genus Lactobacillus (P = 0.0182) than the untreated controls 4 weeks after the cessation of treatment. By week 8, the Proteobacteria levels remained significantly higher in the treated infants (P = 0.0049), but the Actinobacteria, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus levels had recovered and were similar to those in the control samples. Despite this recovery of total Bifidobacterium numbers, rpoB-targeted pyrosequencing revealed that the number of different Bifidobacterium species present in the antibiotic-treated infants was reduced. It is thus apparent that the combined use of ampicillin and gentamicin in early life can have significant effects on the evolution of the infant gut microbiota, the long-term health implications of which remain unknown.