The aim of the Food Chemistry & Technology Department is to help food processors maintain competitive advantage and secure premium markets. Our Dairy research focuses on cheese, infant formula and dairy based ingredients; Meat research, focusing on quality, whole chain management and recovering value from meat processing streams; Cereal research focusing on product quality and innovation in the bakery industry

Recent Submissions

  • Irish research response to dairy quality in an era of change

    O'Brien, Bernadette J.; Beresford, Tom; Cotter, Paul D.; Gleeson, D.; Kelly, A.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Magan, J.; McParland, Sinead; Murphy, E.; O’Callaghan, Tom; et al. (Teagasc, 2022-02-26)
    The Irish dairy sector is recognised for its very significant contribution to the national economic status; it is now worth ∼€5 billion annually and represents the largest food and drink export category, which, in turn, represents one of the four largest manufacturing industries in the country. Given anticipated further growth in global demand for dairy products and the positive attributes and capabilities that Ireland has to meet that demand, in terms of pasture-based production and cost competitiveness, it is incumbent for the sector to attain the highest quality milk and dairy products. The combined collaborative approach between research and industry has ensured significant progress and enabled Ireland to remain at the forefront globally in terms of production of quality milk and dairy products. This paper highlights some specific scientific platforms and technologies currently shaping the industry in this regard and discusses current research activity as well as anticipating key requirements for future progress. While research, and farm and processing plant management have accomplished very significant advances in milk and dairy product quality, some overarching emerging challenges include product substitution and sustainability. Some key pillars for the future have been identified on which a strong, efficient dairy sector can be maintained and progressed. Specifically, the use of evidence-based information and real-time measures in prediction and decision-making will be a crucial pillar for the dairy sector of the future. This can promote an approach of proactive maintenance and optimisation of production through improved predictability and control of manufacturing processes.
  • Enhancing muscle fatty acid profile by pasture finishing within a dairy-origin calf-to-steer beef production system and its potential to authenticate the dietary history of the cattle

    Moloney, Aidan; Keane, Michael G.; Monahan, F. J.; O'Callaghan, Tom (Teagasc, 2021-11-18)
    The influence of modifying a traditional 24-mo dairy steer calf to beef production system on the fatty acid composition of the longissimus muscle and its potential to authenticate beef provenance was examined. Fifty-four male calves (n = 18 per sire breed), progeny of Holstein-Friesian cows mated with Holstein-Friesian (HF), Aberdeen Angus (AA) and Belgian Blue (BB) bulls were at pasture from March until August of their second year when they were assigned to a 3 (breed types) × 3 (finishing strategies) factorial experiment. The three finishing strategies were (i) pasture only for a further 94 d prior to slaughter (21 mo of age) (Grass), (ii) concentrates ad libitum indoors for 94 d prior to slaughter (21 mo of age) (EC) and (iii) pasture only for a further 94 d followed by concentrates ad libitum indoors for 98 d prior to slaughter (24 mo of age) (LC). Compared to EC, muscle from Grass had a lower intramuscular fat concentration and omega-6: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio and higher proportion of conjugated linoleic acid. A longer period at pasture pre-concentrate finishing increased the concentration of omega-3 PUFA which was still lower than in Grass. To maximise the omega-3 PUFA concentration, a late-maturing breed is more appropriate while to maximise conjugated linoleic acid, an early-maturing breed is more appropriate and both should be finished on grass. Chemometric analysis confirmed that the fatty acid profile can authenticate “Grass-Finished” beef per se and has potential to distinguish “Concentrate-Finished” beef based on the length of grazing prior to finishing, but not distinguish between sire breeds.
  • Gerry Downey: an authentic spectroscopist

    Davies, A. N.; Downey, Gerard (2021-12-16)
    This year has seen the retirement of Gerry Downey from active service with the Irish National Agriculture and Food Research Institute, Teagasc1 in Dublin. As one of Europe’s leading innovative spectroscopic chemometricians and a great positive personality to have as a project partner, we thought it appropriate to dedicate a column to Gerry’s career, however embarrassed he may be about the idea!
  • Screening of Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Microalgae Food Supplements

    Martín-Girela, Isabel; Albero, Beatriz; Tiwari, Brijesh K.; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; European Union; EAPA_338/2016 (MDPI AG, 2020-05-20)
    The frenetic lifestyle in the developed countries has driven us to be deficient in some nutrients, which may be overcome by supplements. Microalgae, like spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and chlorella (Chlorella ssp.) are widely used as supplements due to their high contents of macroand micronutrients. Chlorella and spirulina can be grown naturally in a range of water bodies, showing their high adaptability to harsh environments. They are mainly produced in countries with poor water quality and sometimes inexistent water legislation, which can be a vector of micropollutant introduction into the food chain. Thus, a method for the simultaneous determination of 31 emerging contaminants commonly found as micropollutants in freshwater (pharmaceutical and personal care products, hormones, flame retardants and biocides) in two microalgae is presented. Target contaminants were extracted from the microalgae employing ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method was validated for chlorella and spirulina with recoveries ranging from 70% to 111% at concentrations of 25 and 100 ng·g −1 , and good linearity in the range from 5 to 400 ng·g −1 with limits of detection below 2.5 ng·g −1 , in both microalgae. The method validated was applied to a range of microalgae supplement foods and the results proved that the compounds studied were below limits of detection.
  • Immunoglobulin G from bovine milk primes intestinal epithelial cells for increased colonization of bifidobacteria

    Morrin, Sinead T.; McCarthy, Geoffrey; Kennedy, Deirdre; Marotta, Mariarosaria; Irwin, Jane A.; Hickey, Rita M.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2014058 (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-06-18)
    A bovine colostrum fraction (BCF) was recently shown to enhance the adherence of several commensal organisms to intestinal epithelial cells through modulating the epithelial cell surface. In this study, the main components of the BCF were examined to investigate the active component/s responsible for driving the changes in the intestinal cells. The adherence of various bifdobacteria to HT-29 cells was increased when the intestinal cells were pre-incubated with immunoglobulin G (IgG). Modulation of the intestinal cells by IgG was concentration dependent with 16 mg/ mL IgG resulting in a 43-fold increase in the adhesion of Bifdobacterium longum NCIMB 8809 to HT-29 cells. Periodate treatment of colostral IgG prior to performing the colonization studies resulted in a reduction in the adhesion of the strain to the intestinal cells demonstrating that the glycans of IgG may be important in modulating the intestinal cells for enhanced commensal adhesion. IgG isolated from mature milk also resulted in signifcant increases in adhesion of the Bifdobacterium strains tested albeit at reduced levels (3.9-fold). The impact of IgG on the HT-29 cells was also visualised via scanning electron microscopy. This study builds a strong case for the inclusion of IgG ingredients sourced from cow’s milk in functional foods aimed at increasing numbers of health promoting bacteria in the human gut.
  • Effect of storage, food processing and novel extraction technologies on onions flavonoid content: A review

    Ren, Feiyue; Nian, Yingqun; Perussello, Camila A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine; FIRM 06/NITARFC6 (Elsevier, 2020-06-30)
    Onions play an important part in the daily diet for most populations around the world owing to their nutritional composition and their unique capacity to naturally flavor dishes. Onions contain quercetin and its derivatives - the predominant flavonoid in onions that exert a great contribution to the effective bioactive properties of onion, including its derived products. The present paper comprehensively reviewed flavonoids (with a specific focus on quercetin in onions): their chemical composition, distribution, bioactivities in onion, and impacting factors with a focus on how they can be affected by various post-harvest conditions (storage and food processing). In addition, research on the extraction of flavonoid compounds from onions using a number of novel technologies was also reviewed.
  • Development of a dehydrated fortified food base from fermented milk and parboiled wheat, and comparison of its composition and reconstitution behavior with those of commercial dried dairy‐cereal blends

    Shevade, Ashwini V.; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C.; O'Brien, Nora M.; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Guinee, Timothy P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 14/F/805 (Wiley, 2019-10-15)
    Dehydrated blends of milk and cereal are reconstituted and consumed as a nutritious soup or porridge in many regions; the composition and reconstitution behavior of the blends are likely to impact on nutritional quality and consumer acceptability of the soup/porridge. Experimental samples of dried fermented milk‐bulgur wheat blend (FMBW) and commercial samples of dried dairy‐cereal blends, namely kishk, tarhana, and super cereal plus corn–soy blend (SCpCSB) were compared for composition, color, water sorption, and reconstitution characteristics. FMBW blends had higher contents of protein, Ca, lactose and lactic acid, lower levels of salt (NaCl) and Fe, and a lighter, more‐yellow color (higher L* and b*‐color co‐ordinates) than tarhana or kishk. Compared with SCpCSB, FMBW had numerically higher levels of protein, lactose, and lactic acid, lower levels of Ca, Fe, Zn, and Mg, and lower pH. Tarhana had highest mean levels of starch, and on reconstitution (133 g/kg) had highest water holding capacity, viscosity during pasting and cooling, yield stress (σ0), consistency coefficient (K), and viscosity on shearing from 20 to 120 s −1 at 60°C. Reconstituted FMBW, kishk, and SCpCSB had similar pasting and flow behavior properties. Overall, the composition (starch, protein, Ca, Mg), pasting and flow behavior characteristics of FMBW were closer to those SCpCSB and kishk than to tarhana. The results suggest that the FMBW powder, on appropriate supplementation with Ca, Fe, Zn and Mg, could be used for the development of customized fortified blended foods for specific groups.
  • Emerging Technologies for Aerial Decontamination of Food Storage Environments to Eliminate Microbial Cross-Contamination

    Oliveira, Márcia; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Duffy, Geraldine (MDPI AG, 2020-11-30)
    Air is recognized as an important source of microbial contamination in food production facilities and has the potential to contaminate the food product causing food safety and spoilage issues for the food industry. Potential for aerial microbial contamination of food can be a particular issue during storage in cold rooms when the food is not packaged and is exposed to contaminated air over a prolonged period. Thus, there are potential benefits for the food industry for an aerial decontamination in cold storage facilities. In this paper, aerial decontamination approaches are reviewed and challenges encountered for their applications are discussed. It is considered that current systems may not be completely e ective and environmentally friendly, therefore, it is of great significance to consider the development of nonresidual and verified decontamination technologies for the food industry and, in particular, for the cold storage rooms.
  • Effect of Dextrose Equivalent on Maltodextrin/Whey Protein Spray-Dried Powder Microcapsules and Dynamic Release of Loaded Flavor during Storage and Powder Rehydration

    Li, Kaixin; Pan, Bowen; Ma, Lingjun; Miao, Song; Ji, Junfu; National Key R&D Program of China; China Agricultural University; Teagasc; 2018YFC160220 (MDPI, 2020-12-17)
    The preparation of powdered microcapsules of flavor substances should not only protect these substances from volatilization during storage but also improve their di usion during use. This study aimed to investigate the e ects of maltodextrin (MD) with di erent dextrose equivalent (DE) values on retention of flavor substances during storage, and the dynamic release of flavor substances during dissolution. MDs with three di erent DE values and whey protein isolate were mixed in a ratio of 4:1 as wall materials to encapsulate ethyl acetate, and powdered microcapsules were prepared by spray drying. It was proved that MD could reduce the di usion of flavor substances under di erent relative humidity conditions through the interaction between core material and wall material. During dissolution, MD released flavor substances quickly owing to its superior solubility. The reconstituted emulsion formed after the powder dissolved in water recaptured flavor substances and made the system reach equilibrium. This study explored the mechanism of flavor release during the storage and dissolution of powder microcapsules and should help us understand the application of powder microcapsules in food systems.
  • In vitro–in vivo Validation of Stimulatory Effect of Oat Ingredients on Lactobacilli

    Duysburgh, Cindy; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Kamil, Alison; Fleige, Lisa; De Chavez, Peter John; Chu, YiFang; Barton, Wiley; O’Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Quilter, Karina; et al. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-02-19)
    The prebiotic activity of a commercially available oat product and a novel oat ingredient, at similar -glucan loads, was tested using a validated in vitro gut model (M-SHIME®). The novel oat ingredient was tested further at lower -glucan loads in vitro, while the commercially available oat product was assessed in a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, and cross-over human study. Both approaches focused on healthy individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia. In vitro analysis revealed that both oat products strongly stimulated Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae in the intestinal lumen and the simulated mucus layer, and corresponded with enhanced levels of acetate and lactate with cross-feeding interactions leading to an associated increase in propionate and butyrate production. The in vitro prebiotic activity of the novel oat ingredient remained at lower -glucan levels, indicating the prebiotic potential of the novel oat product. Finally, the stimulation of Lactobacillus spp. was confirmed during the in vivo trial, where lactobacilli abundance significantly increased in the overall population at the end of the intervention period with the commercially available oat product relative to the control product, indicating the power of in vitro gut models in predicting in vivo response of the microbial community to dietary modulation.
  • Advances of plant-based structured food delivery systems on the in vitro digestibility of bioactive compounds

    Comunian, Talita Aline; Drusch, Stephan; Brodkorb, Andre; Research Leaders 2025 programme; European Union; Science Foundation Ireland; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc; 754380; 16/RC/3835 (Taylor & Francis, 2021-03-27)
    Food researchers are currently showing a growing interest in in vitro digestibility studies due to their importance for obtaining food products with health benefits and ensuring a balanced nutrient intake. Various bioactive food compounds are sensitive to the digestion process, which results in a lower bioavailability in the gut. The main objective of structured food delivery systems is to promote the controlled release of these compounds at the desired time/place, in addition to protecting them during digestion processes. This review provides an overview of the influence of structured delivery systems on the in vitro digestive behavior. The main delivery systems are summarized, the pros and cons of different structures are outlined, and examples of several studies that optimized the use of these structured systems are provided. In addition, we have reviewed the use of plant-based systems, which have been of interest to food researchers and the food industry because of their health benefits, improved sustainability as well as being an alternative for vegetarian, vegan and consumers suffering from food allergies. In this context, the review provides new insights and comprehensive knowledge regarding the influence of plant-based structured systems on the digestibility of encapsulated compounds and proteins/polysaccharides used in the encapsulation process.
  • Solubility of carbon dioxide in renneted casein matrices: Effect of pH, salt, temperature, partial pressure, and moisture to protein ratio

    Lamichhane, Prabin; Sharma, Prateek; Kelly, Alan L.; Risbo, Jens; Rattray, Fergal P.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Dairy Research Ireland; Omua; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2020-07-25)
    The solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the moisture and protein components of cheese matrices and the influence of changing pH, salt and temperature levels remains unclear. In this study, model casein matrices were prepared, by renneting of micellar casein concentrate (MCC), with modulation of salt and pH levels by adding salt and glucono delta-lactone, respectively, to the MCC solutions prior to renneting. Different moisture-to-protein levels were achieved by freeze-drying, incubation of samples at different relative humidities, or by applying varying pressures during gel manufacture. The CO2 solubility of samples decreased linearly with both increasing temperature and salt-in-moisture content, whereas solubility of CO2 increased with increasing pH. A non-linear relationship was observed between CO2 solubility and the moisture-to-protein ratio of experimental samples. Overall, such knowledge may be applied to improve the quality and consistency of eye-type cheese, and in particular to avoid development of undesirable slits and cracks.
  • Delivery of β-carotene to the in vitro intestinal barrier using nanoemulsions with lecithin or sodium caseinate as emulsifiers

    Gasa-Falcon, Ariadna; Arranz, Elena; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Giblin, Linda; Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad; European Union; Enterprise Ireland; Science Foundation Ireland; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-01-13)
    To increase the intestinal delivery of dietary β-carotene, there is a need to develop nanostructured food systems to encapsulate this fat soluble bioactive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioacessibility and bioavailability across the intestinal barrier of β-carotene-enriched nanoemulsions stabilised with two emulsifiers (lecithin or sodium caseinate) by coupling an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with two in vitro cell culture models (Caco-2 or co-culture of Caco-2/HT29-MTX). Nanoemulsions stabilised with lecithin had significantly higher β-carotene in the gastrointestinal digested micellar fraction, lower β-carotene in the Caco-2 (and Caco-2/HT29-MTX) apical compartment and significantly higher β-carotene in Caco-2 cellular content compared to β-carotene-enriched nanoemulsions stabilised with sodium caseinate. Finally, to assess anti-inflammatory activity of digested nanoemulsions, lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages were exposed to Caco- 2 basolateral samples with levels of TNF-α and IL-β, subsequently quantified. A TNF-α response from stimulated THP-1 macrophages was elicited by basolateral samples, regardless the emulsifier used to formulate nanoemulsions. This study demonstrated that β-carotene permeability is influenced by the food derived emulsifier used for stabilising nanoemulsions, indicating that composition may be a critical factor for β-carotene delivery.
  • Impact of Bovine Diet on Metabolomic Profile of Skim Milk and Whey Protein Ingredients

    Magan, Jonathan B.; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; Zheng, Jiamin; Zhang, Lun; Mandal, Rupasri; Hennessy, Deirdre; Fenelon, Mark A.; Wishart, David S.; Kelly, Alan L.; McCarthy, Noel A. (MDPI AG, 2019-12-17)
    The influence of bovine diet on the metabolome of reconstituted skim milk powder (SMP) and protein ingredients produced from the milk of cows fed on pasture or concentrate-based diets was investigated. Cows were randomly assigned to diets consisting of perennial ryegrass only (GRS), perennial ryegrass/white clover sward (CLV), or indoor total mixed ration (TMR) for an entire lactation. Raw milk obtained from each group was processed at pilot scale, to produce SMP and sweet whey, and SMP was further processed at laboratory scale, to yield ideal whey and acid whey. The total amino acid composition and metabolome of each sample were analyzed, using high-performance cation exchange and a targeted combination of direct-injection mass spectrometry and reverse-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), respectively. The nitrogen composition of the products from each of the diets was similar, with one exception being the significantly higher nonprotein nitrogen content in TMR-derived skim milk powder than that from the GRS system. Total amino acid analysis showed significantly higher concentrations of glycine in GRS- and CLV-derived sweet whey and acid whey than in those from TMR. The cysteine contents of CLV-derived ideal whey and acid whey were significantly higher than for TMR, while the valine content of GRS-derived acid whey was significantly higher than TMR. The phenylalanine content of GRS-derived ideal whey was significantly higher than that from CLV. Metabolomic analysis showed significantly higher concentrations of the metabolites glutamine, valine, and phosphocreatine in each ingredient type derived from TMR than those from GRS or CLV, while the serine content of each GRS-derived ingredient type was significantly higher than that in TMR-derived ingredients. These results demonstrate that the type of bovine feeding system used can have a significant effect on the amino acid composition and metabolome of skim milk and whey powders and may aid in the selection of raw materials for product manufacture, while the clear separation between the samples gives further evidence for distinguishing milk products produced from different feeding systems based on LC–MS/MS
  • Solubility of carbon dioxide in renneted casein matrices: Effect of pH, salt, temperature, partial pressure, and moisture to protein ratio

    Lamichhane, Prabin; Sharma, Prateek; Kelly, Alan L.; Risbo, Jens; Rattray, Fergal P.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Dairy Research Ireland; Ornua; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; RMIS 6259 (Elsevier BV, 2021-01)
    The solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the moisture and protein components of cheese matrices and the influence of changing pH, salt and temperature levels remains unclear. In this study, model casein matrices were prepared, by renneting of micellar casein concentrate (MCC), with modulation of salt and pH levels by adding salt and glucono delta-lactone, respectively, to the MCC solutions prior to renneting. Different moisture-to-protein levels were achieved by freeze-drying, incubation of samples at different relative humidities, or by applying varying pressures during gel manufacture. The CO2 solubility of samples decreased linearly with both increasing temperature and salt-in-moisture content, whereas solubility of CO2 increased with increasing pH. A non-linear relationship was observed between CO2 solubility and the moisture-to-protein ratio of experimental samples. Overall, such knowledge may be applied to improve the quality and consistency of eye-type cheese, and in particular to avoid development of undesirable slits and cracks.
  • The effect of pre-treatment of protein ingredients for infant formula on their in vitro gastro-intestinal behaviour

    Corrigan, Bernard; Brodkorb, André; Kerry Group (Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
    Three milk products, skim milk powder (SMP), demineralised whey powder (DWP) and a whey dominant infant formula (60/40IF) and their corresponding partially hydrolysed products (SMPhyd, DWPhyd and 60/40hyd, respectively) were subjected to static infant in vitro gastro-intestinal (GI) digestion and their digesta were subsequently analysed for protein breakdown. The pre-hydrolysis of proteins provided a head-start in the gastric digestion process compared with the intact proteins, resulting in a higher proportion of small peptides (<1 kDa), a higher degree of hydrolysis and lower observable protein coagulation or curd formation in the gastric phase of the casein dominant systems in particular, which may lead to an earlier onset of gastric emptying in vivo. Little or no differences were detected during the intestinal phase. Hence pre-hydrolysis of proteins may be used as a strategy to lower gastric transit times, which may ease the gastric digestion of infant formulations.
  • Influence of chaperone-like activity of caseinomacropeptide on the gelation behaviour of whey proteins at pH 6.4 and 7.2.

    Gaspard, Sophie J.; Sharma, Prateek; Fitzgerald, Ciarán; Tobin, John T.; O’Mahony, James A.; Kelly, Alan L.; Brodkorb, Andre; Dairy Levy Research Trust; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; European Union; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-03)
    The effect of caseinomacropeptide (CMP) on the heat-induced denaturation and gelation of whey proteins (2.5–10%, w/v) at pH 6.4 and 7.2, at a whey protein:CMP ratio of 1:0.9 (w/w), was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), oscillatory rheology (90 °C for 20 min) and confocal microscopy. Greater frequency-dependence in the presence of CMP suggested that the repulsive interactions between CMP and the whey proteins affected the network generated by the non-heated whey protein samples. At pH 6.4 or 7.2, CMP increased the temperature of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin by up to 3 °C and increased the gelation temperature by up to 7 °C. The inclusion of CMP strongly affected the structure of the heat-induced whey protein gels, resulting in a finer stranded structure at pH 6.4 and 7.2. The presence of CMP combined with a lower heating rate (2 °C/min) prevented the formation of a solid gel of whey proteins after heating for 20 min at 90 °C and at pH 7.2. These results show the potential of CMP for control of whey protein denaturation and gelation.
  • Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Cheeses Influence the Levels of Circulating n-3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans

    Murru, Elisabetta; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Melis, Maria; Desogus, Erika; Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Chilliard, Yves; Ferlay, Anne; Stanton, Catherine; Coakley, Mairéad; et al. (MDPI AG, 2018-06-11)
    n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) directly and indirectly regulate lipid metabolism, energy balance and the inflammatory response. We investigated changes to the n-3 HUFA score of healthy adults, induced by different types and amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched (ENCH) cheeses consumed for different periods of time, compared to dietary fish oil (FO) pills (500 mg, each containing 100 mg of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids—EPA+DHA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA)-rich linseed oil (4 g, containing 2 g of ALA). A significant increase in the n-3 HUFA score was observed, in a dose-dependent manner, after administration of the FO supplement. In terms of the impact on the n-3 HUFA score, the intake of ENCH cheese (90 g/day) for two or four weeks was equivalent to the administration of one or two FO pills, respectively. Conversely, the linseed oil intake did not significantly impact the n-3 HUFA score. Feeding ENCH cheeses from different sources (bovine, ovine and caprine) for two months improved the n-3 HUFA score by increasing plasma DHA, and the effect was proportional to the CLA content in the cheese. We suggest that the improved n-3 HUFA score resulting from ENCH cheese intake may be attributed to increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) activity. This study demonstrates that natural ENCH cheese is an alternative nutritional source of n-3 HUFA in humans.
  • Antimicrobial effects of airborne acoustic ultrasound and plasma activated water from cold and thermal plasma systems on biofilms

    Charoux, Clémentine M. G.; Patange, Apurva D.; Hinds, Laura M.; Simpson, Jeremy C.; O’Donnell, Colm P.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; 14F845; 17/CDA/4653 (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-14)
    Bacterial bioflms are difcult to inactivate due to their high antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, new approaches are required for more efective bacterial bioflm inactivation. Airborne acoustic ultrasound improves bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity which is safe and environmentally friendly. While, plasma activated water (PAW) is attracting increasing attention due to its strong antimicrobial properties. This study determined efcacy of combined airborne acoustic ultrasound and plasma activated water from both cold and thermal plasma systems in inactivating Escherichia coli K12 bioflms. The application of airborne acoustic ultrasound (15 min) alone was signifcantly more efective in reducing E. coli counts in 48 and 72 h bioflms compared to 30 min treatment with PAW. The efect of airborne acoustic ultrasound was more pronounced when used in combination with PAW. Airborne acoustic ultrasound treatment for 15 min of the E. coli bioflm followed by treatment with PAW signifcantly reduced the bacterial count by 2.2—2.62 Log10 CFU/mL when compared to control bioflm treated with distilled water. This study demonstrates that the synergistic efects of airborne acoustic ultrasound and PAW for enhanced antimicrobial efects. These technologies have the potential to prevent and control bioflm formation in food and bio-medical applications.
  • Therapeutic effects of antibiotics loaded cellulose nanofiber and κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide composite hydrogels for periodontitis treatment

    Johnson, Athira; Kong, Fanbin; Miao, Song; Lin, Hong‑Ting Victor; Thomas, Sabu; Huang, Yi‑Cheng; Kong, Zwe‑Ling (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-22)
    Periodontitis is an infammatory disease that can lead to the periodontal pocket formation and tooth loss. This study was aimed to develop antimicrobials loaded hydrogels composed of cellulose nanofbers (CNF) and κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (CO) nanoparticles for the treatment of periodontitis. Two antimicrobial agents such as surfactin and Herbmedotcin were selected as the therapeutic agents and the hydrogels were formulated based on the increasing concentration of surfactin. The proposed material has high thermal stability, controlled release, and water absorption capacity. This study was proceeded by investigating the in vitro antibacterial and anti-infammatory properties of the hydrogels. This material has strong antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, a signifcant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) production and a decrease in bioflm formation and metabolic activity of the bacteria was observed in the presence of hydrogel. Besides, it reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, transcription factor, and cytokines production in human gingival fbroblast cells (HGF) under infammatory conditions. In conclusion, the hydrogels were successfully developed and proven to have antibacterial and anti-infammatory properties for the treatment of periodontitis. Thus, it can be used as an excellent candidate for periodontitis treatment.

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