The aim of the Food Chemistry & Technology Department is to help food processors maintain competitive advantage and secure premium markets. Our Dairy research focuses on cheese, infant formula and dairy based ingredients; Meat research, focusing on quality, whole chain management and recovering value from meat processing streams; Cereal research focusing on product quality and innovation in the bakery industry

Recent Submissions

  • Advances of plant-based structured food delivery systems on the in vitro digestibility of bioactive compounds

    Comunian, Talita Aline; Drusch, Stephan; Brodkorb, Andre; Research Leaders 2025 programme; European Union; Science Foundation Ireland; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc; 754380; 16/RC/3835 (Taylor & Francis, 2021-03-27)
    Food researchers are currently showing a growing interest in in vitro digestibility studies due to their importance for obtaining food products with health benefits and ensuring a balanced nutrient intake. Various bioactive food compounds are sensitive to the digestion process, which results in a lower bioavailability in the gut. The main objective of structured food delivery systems is to promote the controlled release of these compounds at the desired time/place, in addition to protecting them during digestion processes. This review provides an overview of the influence of structured delivery systems on the in vitro digestive behavior. The main delivery systems are summarized, the pros and cons of different structures are outlined, and examples of several studies that optimized the use of these structured systems are provided. In addition, we have reviewed the use of plant-based systems, which have been of interest to food researchers and the food industry because of their health benefits, improved sustainability as well as being an alternative for vegetarian, vegan and consumers suffering from food allergies. In this context, the review provides new insights and comprehensive knowledge regarding the influence of plant-based structured systems on the digestibility of encapsulated compounds and proteins/polysaccharides used in the encapsulation process.
  • Solubility of carbon dioxide in renneted casein matrices: Effect of pH, salt, temperature, partial pressure, and moisture to protein ratio

    Lamichhane, Prabin; Sharma, Prateek; Kelly, Alan L.; Risbo, Jens; Rattray, Fergal P.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Dairy Research Ireland; Omua; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2020-07-25)
    The solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the moisture and protein components of cheese matrices and the influence of changing pH, salt and temperature levels remains unclear. In this study, model casein matrices were prepared, by renneting of micellar casein concentrate (MCC), with modulation of salt and pH levels by adding salt and glucono delta-lactone, respectively, to the MCC solutions prior to renneting. Different moisture-to-protein levels were achieved by freeze-drying, incubation of samples at different relative humidities, or by applying varying pressures during gel manufacture. The CO2 solubility of samples decreased linearly with both increasing temperature and salt-in-moisture content, whereas solubility of CO2 increased with increasing pH. A non-linear relationship was observed between CO2 solubility and the moisture-to-protein ratio of experimental samples. Overall, such knowledge may be applied to improve the quality and consistency of eye-type cheese, and in particular to avoid development of undesirable slits and cracks.
  • Delivery of β-carotene to the in vitro intestinal barrier using nanoemulsions with lecithin or sodium caseinate as emulsifiers

    Gasa-Falcon, Ariadna; Arranz, Elena; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Giblin, Linda; Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad; European Union; Enterprise Ireland; Science Foundation Ireland; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-01-13)
    To increase the intestinal delivery of dietary β-carotene, there is a need to develop nanostructured food systems to encapsulate this fat soluble bioactive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioacessibility and bioavailability across the intestinal barrier of β-carotene-enriched nanoemulsions stabilised with two emulsifiers (lecithin or sodium caseinate) by coupling an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with two in vitro cell culture models (Caco-2 or co-culture of Caco-2/HT29-MTX). Nanoemulsions stabilised with lecithin had significantly higher β-carotene in the gastrointestinal digested micellar fraction, lower β-carotene in the Caco-2 (and Caco-2/HT29-MTX) apical compartment and significantly higher β-carotene in Caco-2 cellular content compared to β-carotene-enriched nanoemulsions stabilised with sodium caseinate. Finally, to assess anti-inflammatory activity of digested nanoemulsions, lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages were exposed to Caco- 2 basolateral samples with levels of TNF-α and IL-β, subsequently quantified. A TNF-α response from stimulated THP-1 macrophages was elicited by basolateral samples, regardless the emulsifier used to formulate nanoemulsions. This study demonstrated that β-carotene permeability is influenced by the food derived emulsifier used for stabilising nanoemulsions, indicating that composition may be a critical factor for β-carotene delivery.
  • Impact of Bovine Diet on Metabolomic Profile of Skim Milk and Whey Protein Ingredients

    Magan, Jonathan B.; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; Zheng, Jiamin; Zhang, Lun; Mandal, Rupasri; Hennessy, Deirdre; Fenelon, Mark A.; Wishart, David S.; Kelly, Alan L.; McCarthy, Noel A. (MDPI AG, 2019-12-17)
    The influence of bovine diet on the metabolome of reconstituted skim milk powder (SMP) and protein ingredients produced from the milk of cows fed on pasture or concentrate-based diets was investigated. Cows were randomly assigned to diets consisting of perennial ryegrass only (GRS), perennial ryegrass/white clover sward (CLV), or indoor total mixed ration (TMR) for an entire lactation. Raw milk obtained from each group was processed at pilot scale, to produce SMP and sweet whey, and SMP was further processed at laboratory scale, to yield ideal whey and acid whey. The total amino acid composition and metabolome of each sample were analyzed, using high-performance cation exchange and a targeted combination of direct-injection mass spectrometry and reverse-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), respectively. The nitrogen composition of the products from each of the diets was similar, with one exception being the significantly higher nonprotein nitrogen content in TMR-derived skim milk powder than that from the GRS system. Total amino acid analysis showed significantly higher concentrations of glycine in GRS- and CLV-derived sweet whey and acid whey than in those from TMR. The cysteine contents of CLV-derived ideal whey and acid whey were significantly higher than for TMR, while the valine content of GRS-derived acid whey was significantly higher than TMR. The phenylalanine content of GRS-derived ideal whey was significantly higher than that from CLV. Metabolomic analysis showed significantly higher concentrations of the metabolites glutamine, valine, and phosphocreatine in each ingredient type derived from TMR than those from GRS or CLV, while the serine content of each GRS-derived ingredient type was significantly higher than that in TMR-derived ingredients. These results demonstrate that the type of bovine feeding system used can have a significant effect on the amino acid composition and metabolome of skim milk and whey powders and may aid in the selection of raw materials for product manufacture, while the clear separation between the samples gives further evidence for distinguishing milk products produced from different feeding systems based on LC–MS/MS
  • Solubility of carbon dioxide in renneted casein matrices: Effect of pH, salt, temperature, partial pressure, and moisture to protein ratio

    Lamichhane, Prabin; Sharma, Prateek; Kelly, Alan L.; Risbo, Jens; Rattray, Fergal P.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Dairy Research Ireland; Ornua; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; RMIS 6259 (Elsevier BV, 2021-01)
    The solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the moisture and protein components of cheese matrices and the influence of changing pH, salt and temperature levels remains unclear. In this study, model casein matrices were prepared, by renneting of micellar casein concentrate (MCC), with modulation of salt and pH levels by adding salt and glucono delta-lactone, respectively, to the MCC solutions prior to renneting. Different moisture-to-protein levels were achieved by freeze-drying, incubation of samples at different relative humidities, or by applying varying pressures during gel manufacture. The CO2 solubility of samples decreased linearly with both increasing temperature and salt-in-moisture content, whereas solubility of CO2 increased with increasing pH. A non-linear relationship was observed between CO2 solubility and the moisture-to-protein ratio of experimental samples. Overall, such knowledge may be applied to improve the quality and consistency of eye-type cheese, and in particular to avoid development of undesirable slits and cracks.
  • The effect of pre-treatment of protein ingredients for infant formula on their in vitro gastro-intestinal behaviour

    Corrigan, Bernard; Brodkorb, André; Kerry Group (Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
    Three milk products, skim milk powder (SMP), demineralised whey powder (DWP) and a whey dominant infant formula (60/40IF) and their corresponding partially hydrolysed products (SMPhyd, DWPhyd and 60/40hyd, respectively) were subjected to static infant in vitro gastro-intestinal (GI) digestion and their digesta were subsequently analysed for protein breakdown. The pre-hydrolysis of proteins provided a head-start in the gastric digestion process compared with the intact proteins, resulting in a higher proportion of small peptides (<1 kDa), a higher degree of hydrolysis and lower observable protein coagulation or curd formation in the gastric phase of the casein dominant systems in particular, which may lead to an earlier onset of gastric emptying in vivo. Little or no differences were detected during the intestinal phase. Hence pre-hydrolysis of proteins may be used as a strategy to lower gastric transit times, which may ease the gastric digestion of infant formulations.
  • Influence of chaperone-like activity of caseinomacropeptide on the gelation behaviour of whey proteins at pH 6.4 and 7.2.

    Gaspard, Sophie J.; Sharma, Prateek; Fitzgerald, Ciarán; Tobin, John T.; O’Mahony, James A.; Kelly, Alan L.; Brodkorb, Andre; Dairy Levy Research Trust; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; European Union; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-03)
    The effect of caseinomacropeptide (CMP) on the heat-induced denaturation and gelation of whey proteins (2.5–10%, w/v) at pH 6.4 and 7.2, at a whey protein:CMP ratio of 1:0.9 (w/w), was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), oscillatory rheology (90 °C for 20 min) and confocal microscopy. Greater frequency-dependence in the presence of CMP suggested that the repulsive interactions between CMP and the whey proteins affected the network generated by the non-heated whey protein samples. At pH 6.4 or 7.2, CMP increased the temperature of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin by up to 3 °C and increased the gelation temperature by up to 7 °C. The inclusion of CMP strongly affected the structure of the heat-induced whey protein gels, resulting in a finer stranded structure at pH 6.4 and 7.2. The presence of CMP combined with a lower heating rate (2 °C/min) prevented the formation of a solid gel of whey proteins after heating for 20 min at 90 °C and at pH 7.2. These results show the potential of CMP for control of whey protein denaturation and gelation.
  • Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Cheeses Influence the Levels of Circulating n-3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans

    Murru, Elisabetta; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Melis, Maria; Desogus, Erika; Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Chilliard, Yves; Ferlay, Anne; Stanton, Catherine; Coakley, Mairéad; et al. (MDPI AG, 2018-06-11)
    n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) directly and indirectly regulate lipid metabolism, energy balance and the inflammatory response. We investigated changes to the n-3 HUFA score of healthy adults, induced by different types and amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched (ENCH) cheeses consumed for different periods of time, compared to dietary fish oil (FO) pills (500 mg, each containing 100 mg of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids—EPA+DHA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA)-rich linseed oil (4 g, containing 2 g of ALA). A significant increase in the n-3 HUFA score was observed, in a dose-dependent manner, after administration of the FO supplement. In terms of the impact on the n-3 HUFA score, the intake of ENCH cheese (90 g/day) for two or four weeks was equivalent to the administration of one or two FO pills, respectively. Conversely, the linseed oil intake did not significantly impact the n-3 HUFA score. Feeding ENCH cheeses from different sources (bovine, ovine and caprine) for two months improved the n-3 HUFA score by increasing plasma DHA, and the effect was proportional to the CLA content in the cheese. We suggest that the improved n-3 HUFA score resulting from ENCH cheese intake may be attributed to increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) activity. This study demonstrates that natural ENCH cheese is an alternative nutritional source of n-3 HUFA in humans.
  • Antimicrobial effects of airborne acoustic ultrasound and plasma activated water from cold and thermal plasma systems on biofilms

    Charoux, Clémentine M. G.; Patange, Apurva D.; Hinds, Laura M.; Simpson, Jeremy C.; O’Donnell, Colm P.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; 14F845; 17/CDA/4653 (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-14)
    Bacterial bioflms are difcult to inactivate due to their high antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, new approaches are required for more efective bacterial bioflm inactivation. Airborne acoustic ultrasound improves bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity which is safe and environmentally friendly. While, plasma activated water (PAW) is attracting increasing attention due to its strong antimicrobial properties. This study determined efcacy of combined airborne acoustic ultrasound and plasma activated water from both cold and thermal plasma systems in inactivating Escherichia coli K12 bioflms. The application of airborne acoustic ultrasound (15 min) alone was signifcantly more efective in reducing E. coli counts in 48 and 72 h bioflms compared to 30 min treatment with PAW. The efect of airborne acoustic ultrasound was more pronounced when used in combination with PAW. Airborne acoustic ultrasound treatment for 15 min of the E. coli bioflm followed by treatment with PAW signifcantly reduced the bacterial count by 2.2—2.62 Log10 CFU/mL when compared to control bioflm treated with distilled water. This study demonstrates that the synergistic efects of airborne acoustic ultrasound and PAW for enhanced antimicrobial efects. These technologies have the potential to prevent and control bioflm formation in food and bio-medical applications.
  • Therapeutic effects of antibiotics loaded cellulose nanofiber and κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide composite hydrogels for periodontitis treatment

    Johnson, Athira; Kong, Fanbin; Miao, Song; Lin, Hong‑Ting Victor; Thomas, Sabu; Huang, Yi‑Cheng; Kong, Zwe‑Ling (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-22)
    Periodontitis is an infammatory disease that can lead to the periodontal pocket formation and tooth loss. This study was aimed to develop antimicrobials loaded hydrogels composed of cellulose nanofbers (CNF) and κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (CO) nanoparticles for the treatment of periodontitis. Two antimicrobial agents such as surfactin and Herbmedotcin were selected as the therapeutic agents and the hydrogels were formulated based on the increasing concentration of surfactin. The proposed material has high thermal stability, controlled release, and water absorption capacity. This study was proceeded by investigating the in vitro antibacterial and anti-infammatory properties of the hydrogels. This material has strong antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, a signifcant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) production and a decrease in bioflm formation and metabolic activity of the bacteria was observed in the presence of hydrogel. Besides, it reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, transcription factor, and cytokines production in human gingival fbroblast cells (HGF) under infammatory conditions. In conclusion, the hydrogels were successfully developed and proven to have antibacterial and anti-infammatory properties for the treatment of periodontitis. Thus, it can be used as an excellent candidate for periodontitis treatment.
  • Self-Agglomeration in Fluidised Beds after Spray Drying

    Fitzpatrick, John J.; Wu, Shaozong; Cronin, Kevin; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 201606350091 (MDPI AG, 2020-06-05)
    Many powders are produced in spray-drying processes from liquid concentrates. Self-agglomeration can be performed in a fluidised bed where the spray-dried powder is agglomerated using the liquid concentrate as the binder material. This has advantages over traditional wet agglomeration in fluid beds using liquid binders (such as water or sugar solutions). These include thermal energy savings and no additional non-aqueous binder components added. The work presented has two parts. The first part is experimental, which investigated the self-agglomeration of whey protein isolate (WPI) powder as a case-study. It showed that satisfactory agglomeration was achieved with a great improvement in the wettability of the powder. The second part of the work performed thermal energy analysis to estimate the energy saving potential of self-agglomeration, and how this is influenced by binder to powder ratio and binder solids concentration. For the WPI case-study, the analysis showed there is potential for a 19% saving in thermal energy requirement for self-agglomeration in comparison to traditional agglomeration using a water binder.
  • Visible and NIR hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics for prediction of microbial quality of beef Longissimus dorsi muscle under simulated normal and abuse storage conditions

    Achata, Eva M.; Oliveira, Marcia; Esquerre, Carlos A.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food & the Marine; 13/FM/508 (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
    There is a need to develop a rapid technique to provide real time information on the microbial load of meat along the supply chain. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a rapid, non-destructive technique well suited to food analysis applications. In this study, HSI in both the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, and chemometrics were studied for prediction of the bacterial growth on beef Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) under simulated normal (4 °C) and abuse (10 °C) storage conditions. Total viable count (TVC) prediction models were developed using partial least squares regression (PLS-R), spectral pre-treatments, band selection and data fusion methods. The best TVC prediction models developed for storage at 4 (RMSEp 0.58 log CFU/g, RPDp 4.13, R2p 0.96), 10 °C (RMSEp 0.97 log CFU/g, RPDp 3.28, R2p 0.94) or at either 4 or 10 °C (RMSEp 0.89 log CFU/g, RPDp 2.27, R2p 0.86) were developed using high-level data fusion of both spectral regions. The use of appropriate spectral pre-treatments and band selection methods was key for robust model development. This study demonstrated the potential of HSI and chemometrics for real time monitoring to predict microbial growth on LD along the meat supply chain.
  • Preparation, structure-property relationships and applications of different emulsion gels: Bulk emulsion gels, emulsion gel particles, and fluid emulsion gels

    Lin, Duanquan; Kelly, Alan L.; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 201708350111 (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
    Background In recent years, there has been increasing interest in emulsion gels, due to their better stability during storage and potential for prolonged intestinal drug release compared to emulsions. There are three kinds of emulsion gels, classified according to their morphological properties: bulk emulsion gels, emulsion gel particles and liquid emulsion gels. Scope and approach This paper provides a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and procedures of different methods for preparing different emulsion gels and relationships between structures and properties of emulsion gels. The applications of emulsion gels in the food industry are finally discussed. Key findings and conclusions Different emulsion gels result from different preparation methods, and have various structure-property relationships and applications. Many methods can be used to prepare bulk emulsion gels, involving different matrix materials, processing techniques, and purposes. This can result in different structures of gel matrices and emulsion droplets, and interactions between them, which can influence the structures of bulk emulsion gels and then their mechanical and release properties. On the other hand, extrusion and impinging aerosol methods are two methods for preparing emulsion gel particles, while liquid emulsion gels can be prepared by Pickering emulsions and disrupted gel systems. Rheological, syneresis and swelling properties are critical for gel particle suspensions, while flow behavior and release properties are important to liquid emulsion gels. In addition, fat replacements and delivery systems are main applications of emulsion gels in the food industry. However, current research has mainly focused on bulk emulsion gels, so further studies on emulsion gel particles and liquid emulsion gels are required.
  • Effect of concentrations of alginate, soy protein isolate and sunflower oil on water loss, shrinkage, elastic and structural properties of alginate-based emulsion gel beads during gelation

    Lin, Duanquan; Kelly, Alan L.; Maidannyk, Valentyn; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 201708350111 (Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of concentrations of sodium alginate (0.5%–1.5% in the water phase of an emulsion), soy protein isolate (SPI, 0.5%–2.0% in the water phase) and oil phase (10%–40% in the emulsion) on the properties (including water loss, shrinkage, morphological, elastic, and structural properties) of emulsion gel beads during gelation (0–30 min). Gel beads were prepared with external gelation by dropping emulsions into CaCl2 solutions using pipettes. The Young's modulus of emulsion gel beads kept increasing during gelation before reaching a plateau accompanied by syneresis (i.e., water loss), shrinkage, and structural tightening. SPI absorbed at the surface of oil droplets could prevent re-coalescence of droplets during gelation. Additionally, increasing concentrations of sodium alginate and oil increased the Young's modulus of gel beads. Water loss decreased with increasing contents of alginate, SPI and oil, and shrinkage could be diminished by increasing alginate and oil contents.
  • Use of an NIR MEMS spectrophotometer and visible/NIR hyperspectral imaging systems to predict quality parameters of treated ground peppercorns

    Esquerre, Carlos A.; Achata, Eva M.; García-Vaquero, Marco; Zhang, Zhihang; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P. (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a micro-electromechanical NIR spectrophotometer (NIR-MEMS) and visible (Vis)/NIR hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems to predict the moisture content, antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) of treated ground peppercorns. Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed using spectra from peppercorns treated with hot-air, microwave and cold plasma. The spectra were acquired using three spectroscopy systems: NIR-MEMS (1350–1650 nm), Vis-NIR HSI (450–950 nm) and NIR HSI (957–1664 nm). Very good predictions of TPC (RPD > 3.6) were achieved using NIR-MEMS. The performance of models developed using Vis-NIR HSI and NIR HSI were good or very good for DPPH (RPD > 3.0), FRAP (RPD >2.9) and TPC (RPD > 3.8). This study demonstrated the potential of NIR-MEMS and Vis-NIR/NIR HSI to predict the moisture content, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of peppercorns. The spectroscopy technologies investigated are suitable for use as in-line PAT tools to facilitate improved process control and understanding during peppercorn processing.
  • A novel approach for dynamic in-situ surface characterisation of milk protein concentrate hydration and reconstitution using an environmental scanning electron microscope

    Cenini, V.L.; Gallagher, L.; McKerr, G.; McCarthy, Noel; McSweeney, D. J.; Auty, M. A. E.; O'Hagan, M. A. E.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs in Northern Ireland; DAIRY DRY 15-F-679 (Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
    Composition and relative humidity (RH) can have a profound impact on the physical (flowability, stickiness) and functional (reconstitution) properties of milk powder (MP) and therefore its quality, storage stability and shelf-life. Conventional microscopic techniques are not capable of dynamically imaging the effect of RH on MP at high magnification. The aim of this study was to develop a novel method to characterise in-situ and in real time the hydration and reconstitution of five spray-dried milk protein concentrates (MPCs) using an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). ESEM was employed to observe the surface microstructure of MPC powders with varying protein content (38.63%–80.94%, w/w), at various RH values ranging from 35% to over 100%. MPC powders were imaged by an ESEM without any prior preparation, and with minimal physical sample alteration, thus providing fundamental insights into MPC hydration and reconstitution. ESEM surface analysis showed particle swelling in all MPCs, and that with increasing protein content, hydration and reconstitution efficiency decreased. For the first time, dynamic particle surface fusion was observed. Such fusion can result in stickiness and caking over time. ESEM methods developed here may provide mechanistic insights into the effects of RH during storage. Surface re-arrangement was also observed in all MPCs, but was impeded in MPC70 and MPC80 thus indicating that this is the rate limiting step for MPC reconstitution. This work validates the use of an ESEM to dynamically characterise MPC powder hydration and reconstitution in-situ and in real-time, at both high magnification and spatial resolution.
  • Moderate electric fields and ohmic heating as promising fermentation tools

    Gavahian, Mohsen; Tiwari, Brijesh K (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
    Fermentation is an important bioprocess in food production and its improvements can bring profits to the food industry. Therefore, researchers are exploring the feasibility of applying emerging processing technologies such as moderate electric field (MEF) and ohmic heating to improve this bioprocess. This study demonstrated the current status, potential benefits, mechanisms, and limitations of innovative MEF- and ohmic-assisted fermentation. Research showed that these techniques can positively affect Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Saccharomyces fermentations that are involved in the production of bakery (e.g., leavened breads), dairy (e.g., yogurt), and alcoholic products. Also, volumetric ohmic heating can accelerate fermentation by providing optimum fermentation temperatures quickly. MEF-induced stress-response conditions can affect microbial metabolism and fermentation products. Besides, electrical fields may affect the fermentation process by altering the substrate such as releasing its micronutrients. These approaches can be considered prospective industrial fermentation tools. Further economic studies and in-depth research on their effects on fermentation by-products are expected in the near future.
  • Impact of freezing on the physicochemical and functional properties of low–moisture part–skim mozzarella

    To, Chak Ming; Vermeir, Lien; Rebry, Ferre; Kerkaert, Barbara; Van der Meeren, Paul; Guinee, Tim; Flemish Agency for Innovation & Entrepreneurship; Fund for Scientific Research – Flanders; HBC.2017.0297 (Elsevier BV, 2020-07)
    Low–moisture part–skim (LMPS) mozzarella cheeses were held at 4 °C for 0, 2 or 8 d before freezing to −20 °C. The cheeses were frozen at a rate of 0.6, 2.0 or 8.0 °C h−1 and held frozen at −20 °C for 1, 6, 12 or 44 weeks. After freezing, cheeses were stored at 4 °C for 16–37 d, resulting in a total storage time at 4 °C (before and after freezing) of 24–37 d (frozen–thawed mozzarella). Control mozzarella was stored at 4 °C for 25–37 d. The control and frozen–thawed cheeses were assayed for composition, primary proteolysis, moisture distribution, texture profile analysis and melting characteristics after similar storage times at 4 °C. Freezing under the evaluated conditions resulted in reduced firmness of the unheated cheese but did not significantly affect the properties of the heated cheese. The results suggest that freezing may be effectively applied to control or extend the functional shelf–life of LMPS mozzarella shipped to long–distance markets.
  • Evaluation of production of Cheddar cheese from micellar casein concentrate

    Li, Bozhao; Waldron, David S.; Tobin, John T.; Subhir, Surabhi; Kelly, Alan L.; McSweeney, Paul L.H.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15F683 (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
    The production of Cheddar cheese using micellar casein concentrate (MCC), a novel milk ingredient powder with a high casein content (∼92%), was evaluated. Four types of Cheddar cheese were manufactured and ripened for 180 days from the following starting materials: standardised control milk (control), skim milk with cream (SC), reconstituted MCC with cream (MC) and reconstituted low-heat skim milk powder with cream (PC). Only minor differences were found in composition between treatments, but MC cheese showed higher levels of proteolysis compared with other treatments, linked to significantly higher plasmin and chymosin activities. No differences were observed in hardness between treatments (60, 120 and 180 days), but the springiness and cohesiveness of MC and PC cheeses were significantly higher than that of the control and SC cheeses at 60, 120 and 180 days. The use of casein-dominant dairy streams thus has the potential for production of Cheddar cheese with tailored functionality.
  • Conjugation of soy protein isolate (SPI) with pectin by ultrasound treatment

    Ma, Xiaobin; Hou, Furong; Zhao, Huanhuan; Wang, Danli; Chen, Weijun; Miao, Song; Liu, Donghong; National Natural Science Foundation of China; China Postdoctoral Science Foundation; International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
    The Maillard reaction in the aqueous system with and without ultrasound treatment was used to prepare conjugates between soy protein isolate (SPI) and citrus pectin (CP)/apple pectin (AP). Ultrasound treatment at a power of 450 W and a temperature of 70 °C significantly accelerated the conjugation processes between SPI and pectin samples and led to much greater grafting extents compared to the traditional wet heating. A higher degree of graft of the SPI-CP conjugates was achieved at a shorter ultrasound duration compared to the SPI-AP conjugates, possibly attributed to the larger molecular weight and the more flexible structure of AP. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the formation of SPI-pectin conjugates. Analysis of the protein secondary and tertiary structures suggested that the attachment of CP or AP changed the spatial conformation of SPI and led to a looser protein structure. In addition to the grafting process, ultrasound was also observed to play a marked role in unfolding the SPI resulting in more favorable structures for the Maillard reaction. Furthermore, the application of ultrasound to the conjugation process significantly increased the surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying properties of both conjugates, indicating that ultrasound can be a desirable method for protein-polysaccharide conjugation.

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