• Bioactivity of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin-Technological implications for processing

      Chatterton, Dereck E.W.; Smithers, Geoffrey; Roupas, Peter; Brodkorb, Andre (Elsevier, 17/08/2006)
      The dairy industry faces new technological challenges in order to exploit and maintain some of the bioactive properties of dairy components throughout processing. This review outlines these issues with respect to the two major whey proteins β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-la). Biological activities of both the intact proteins, and peptides derived from the proteins, are discussed e.g. inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), anti-microbial activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, hypocholesterolemic effect, metabolic and physiological effects. The levels necessary to provide beneficial effects and, if available, evidence from clinical trials are reported. Developments in the purification and enrichment of the proteins are discussed, and the technological implications of industrial processing on the bio-activity of the proteins are examined. The supplementation of infant formulas with α-lactalbumin enriched whey proteins is also discussed in light of its potentially improved bioactive properties.
    • Comparison of antioxidant activities of bovine whey proteins before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion

      Corrochano, Alberto R.; Sariçay, Yunus; Arranz, Elena; Kelly, Philip M.; Buckin, Vitaly; Giblin, Linda; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 13 F 354-WheyGSH (Elsevier, 2018-10-24)
      Oxidative stress caused by free radicals has been implicated in several human disorders. Dietary antioxidants can help the body to counteract those reactive species and reduce oxidative stress. Antioxidant activity is one of the multiple health-promoting attributes assigned to bovine whey products. The present study investigated whether this activity was retained during upper gut transit using a static simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) model. The capacity to scavenge free radicals and reduce ferric ion of whey protein isolate (WPI), individual whey proteins, and hydrolysates pre- and post-SGID were measured and compared using various antioxidant assays. In addition, the free AA released from individual protein fractions in physiological gut conditions were characterized. Our results indicated that the antioxidant activity of WPI after exposure to the harsh conditions of the upper gut significantly increased compared with intact WPI. From an antioxidant bioactivity viewpoint, this exposure negates the need for prior hydrolysis of WPI. The whey protein α-lactalbumin showed the highest antioxidant properties post-SGID (oxygen radical absorbance capacity = 1,825.94 ± 50.21 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g of powder) of the 4 major whey proteins tested with the release of the highest amount of the antioxidant AA tryptophan, 6.955 μmol of tryptophan/g of protein. Therefore, α-lactalbumin should be the preferred whey protein in food formulations to boost antioxidant defenses.