• Complexes between linoleate and native or aggregated β-lactoglobulin: Interaction parameters and in vitro cytotoxic effect.

      Le Maux, Solene; Bouhallab, Said; Giblin, Linda; Brodkorb, Andre; Croguennec, Thomas; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology; 08/RD/TMFRC/650 (Elsevier, 2013-11)
      Iron is essential for human health, but it sometimes causes an unpleasant taste, rusty colour and a decrease in the stability of food products. Previously, we found that ethanol-treated yeast (ETY) cells could remove iron from wine and juice, and reduce the fishy aftertaste induced by iron in wine–seafood pairings. However, the mechanism of iron sorption by ETY cells is undefined; thus, there is no indicator that can be used to estimate the iron sorption capacity of these cells. In this study, we showed that cell wall components are not mainly associated with iron sorption by investigating ETY cells with the cell wall removed. Moreover, plasma membrane permeability was correlated with the iron sorbing capacity of the cells. Microscopic analysis showed that iron accumulated within ETY cells. Proteinase-treated ETY cells had no iron sorbing capacity. On the basis of these results, we conclude that intracellular proteins are involved in iron sorption by ETY cells.
    • Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Heat-induced Aggregates of Whey Protein Isolate

      O'Loughlin, Ian B.; Murray, Brian A.; Kelly, Philip M.; Fitzgerald, Richard J.; Brodkorb, Andre (American Chemical Society, 26/04/2012)
      The effects of heat induced denaturation and subsequent aggregation of Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) solutions on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. Denaturation of whey proteins was monitored by reversed-phase and size exclusion HPLC and observed by native- and SDS-PAGE. Treated and un-treated WPI solutions (100 g L-1 protein) were hydrolysed to a target degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 5 % with Corolase® PP. Aggregate formation was monitored using light microscopy, with size distribution determined by particle size. Viscosity and surface hydrophobicity exhibited large increases with heat-treatment and the major protein components in WPI showed differences in their rates of aggregation. Results revealed an increased rate of hydrolysis of protein solutions, which were subjected to a pre-hydrolysis heattreatment. Light and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) images illustrated the optical clarification of the solution, weakening of the gel network and disintegration of aggregates indicative of hydrolysis. Comparison of samples where there was a heat-treatment prior to hydrolysis and a control non-treated hydrolysis reaction, revealed significant differences in the time to reach 5 %DH (P < 0.001). The heat-treatments ≥ 75 ºC for 5 min produced significantly (P < 0.001) more rapid reactions than the other 5 heat-treatments and the control un-treated reaction. The viscosity, surface hydrophobicity, and insolubility of the heat-treated WPI solutions subsequently declined upon their hydrolysis. The extensive aggregation in some heattreated solutions was postulated to relate to the congruent increased rate of hydrolysis. This study demonstrated that prior thermal treatment of ≥ 75 ºC for 5 min can accelerate the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of WPI with Corolase® PP.