Browsing Food Chemistry & Technology by Subject "Fatty acids"
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The cytotoxicity of fatty acid/α-lactalbumin complexes depends on the amount and type of fatty acidComplexes of the milk protein, α-lactalbumin, and the fatty acid, oleic acid, have previously been shown to be cytotoxic. Complexes of α-lactalbumin and five different fatty acids (vaccenic, linoleic, palmitoleic, stearic, and elaidic acid) were prepared and compared to those formed with oleic acid. All complexes were cytotoxic to human promyelocytic leukemia-derived (HL-60) cells but to different degrees depending on the fatty acid. The amount of fatty acid per α-lactalbumin molecule was found to correlate with the cytotoxicity; the higher the number of fatty acids per protein, the more cytotoxic the complex. Importantly, all the tested fatty acids were also found to be cytotoxic on their own in a concentration dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of complexes between α-lactalbumin and linoleic acid, vaccenic acid, or oleic acid was further investigated using flow cytometry and found to induce cell death resembling apoptosis on Jurkat cells. Practical applications: Cytotoxic complexes of α-lactalbumin and several different fatty acids could be produced. The cytotoxicity of all the variants is similar to that previously determined for α-lactalbumin/oleic acid complexes.
Enhancing the healthiness, shelf-life and flavour of Irish fresh packaged beefConsumer concern about the nutritional aspects of health has heightened interest in developing methods for manipulation of the fatty acid composition of ruminant products. Ruminant meats such as beef and lamb are often criticised by nutritionists for having high amounts of saturated (S) fatty acids and low levels of polyunsaturated (P) fatty acids. The P:S ratio in beef is approximately 0.1, the ideal being about 0.4. However, an excessive increase in P concentration could predispose beef lipids to rancidity and loss of shelflife. Moreover, the colour of meat is an important influence on the purchase decision of the consumer. This report summarises the Teagasc contribution to a larger project supported under the Food Institutional Research Measure programme administrated by the Department of Agriculture and Food. The Teagasc contribution focused on enhancing the fatty acid composition of beef by nutritional manipulation of cattle using grazing and plant oils, the use of healthy - fatty acid enriched bovine tissue to make a processed beef product and the efficacy of dietary inclusion of tea catechins and rosemary to enhance the shelf-life of beef.