Browsing Food Chemistry & Technology by Subject "Fermentation"
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Evaluation of a fluorescence and infrared backscatter sensor to monitor acid induced coagulation of skim milkA prototype sensor that employs both ultraviolet excited fluorescence and infrared light backscatter was evaluated as an in-line process analytical technology (PAT) tool to monitor acid induced coagulation kinetics of skim milk. Coagulation experiments were carried out at 32 °C using three concentrations of glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). Measurement of storage modulus (G′) of acidified skim milk gel was used as a reference rheological method to monitor the coagulation kinetics. Prediction models were developed to predict the times required for acidified skim milk coagulum to reach selected G′ values (0.5 Pa, 1 Pa, 5 Pa, 10 Pa and 15 Pa) using time parameters extracted from the ultraviolet excited fluorescence and infrared light backscatter profiles. A strong correlation was observed between the predicted times developed using time parameters extracted from the prototype sensor profiles and the measured G′ times extracted from the rheometer (R2 = 0.97, standard error of prediction = 2.8 min). This study concluded that the prototype fluorescence and infrared backscatter sensor investigated combined with the developed rheological prediction model can be used as a potential PAT tool for in-line monitoring of coagulation kinetics in the manufacture of acid induced milk gels. Industrial relevance: The prototype fluorescence and infrared backscatter sensor investigated in this study combined with the developed rheological prediction model can be employed to monitor and control coagulation kinetics in a wide range of dairy processing applications including fresh cheese varieties and yoghurt manufacture.